Gender Mandates in Climate Policy

Before you start

In the last few years, the UNFCCC – the only one out of three Rio Conventions that lacked mandates on women’s rights and gender equality from the outset – has made major strides in integrating gender across all thematic areas in the negotiations. Most notable in recent years are the launch in 2014 of the Lima Work Programme on Gender and the integration of gender in the Paris Agreement as a preambular principle for all climate action, as well as in relation to adaptation and capacity building. Decisions have aimed to enhance gender equality via both policy and practice, encouraging gender balance in decision-making as well as responsiveness to gender issues in the development, implementation and monitoring of climate change policies and actions.

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Gender reference

Reaffirms the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacity building activities.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 2/CP.7, 2/CP.10, 4/CP.12, 1/CP.16 and 10/CP.16,

Acknowledging that capacity-building for developing countries is essential to enable them to participate fully in, and implement effectively their commitments under, the Convention,

Having considered the information in documents prepared by the secretariat in support of the second comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries,

 

Noting that while progress has been made, gaps still remain in addressing the priority issues identified in the framework for capacity-building in developing countries as contained in decision 2/CP.7,

Reaffirming that capacity-building should be a continuous, progressive and iterative process that is participatory, country-driven and consistent with national priorities and circumstances,

Also reaffirming the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacity-building activities,

  1. Decides that the scope of needs and priority areas identified in the framework for capacity-building in developing countries as contained in decision 2/CP.7 and the key factors identified in decision 2/CP.10 remain relevant and continue to be the basis for and guide the implementation of capacity-building activities in developing countries;
  2. Also decides that capacity-building priorities and needs in developing countries, including those emerging from decision 1/CP.16, should be taken into account in the further implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries;
  3. Invites relevant United Nations agencies and intergovernmental organizations to continue providing support for capacity-building efforts in developing countries, emphasizing and stressing the need for the full involvement of developing countries in the conception and development of such activities
  4. Also invites Parties included in Annex II to the Convention and other Parties that are in a position to do so, multilateral, bilateral and international agencies and the private sector to continue providing financial resources to support capacity-building action in developing countries;
  5. Further invites Parties to enhance reporting on best practices related to capacity-building in their national communications, submissions and other relevant documents, with a view to furthering learning and broadening the impact of capacity-building activities;
  6. Decides that further implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries should be improved at the systemic, institutional and individual levels as appropriate, by the following:
    1. Ensuring consultations with stakeholders throughout the entire process of activities, from the design of activities to their implementation and monitoring and evaluation;
    2. Enhancing integration of climate change issues and capacity-building needs into national development strategies, plans and budgets;
    3. Increased country-driven coordination of capacity-building activities;
    4. Strengthened networking and information sharing among developing countries, especially through South–South and triangular cooperation;
  7. Also decides to conclude the second comprehensive review and to initiate the third comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries, taking into account decisions 1/CP.16 and 2/CP.17 as they relate to capacity-building, at the forty-second session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (June 2015) with a view to completing the review at the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties (November–December 2016).

Gender reference

As part of the MoU between the UNFCCC Conference of Parties and UNEP (selected host), this decision reiterated the mission of the CTCN to take into account gender considerations in the preparation and implementation of technology projects and strategies. Additionally, it decided that the constitution of the CTCN Advisory Board should take into account the need to achieve gender balance in accordance with decisions 36/CP.7 and 23/CP.18.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 1/CP.16 and 2/CP.17,

1. Notes with appreciation the completion of the selection process for the host of the Climate Technology Centre, which had the support of the evaluation panel nominated by the Technology Executive Committee from within its membership, the Subsidiary Body for Implementation and the secretariat and involved the valuable participation of the nine proponents that responded to the call for proposals for hosting the Climate Technology Centre;

2. Decides that the United Nations Environment Programme, as the leader of the consortium of partner institutions, is hereby selected as the host of the Climate Technology Centre for an initial term of five years, with possible renewal if so decided by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-third session;

3. Adopts the memorandum of understanding between the Conference of the Parties and the United Nations Environment Programme regarding the hosting of the Climate Technology Centre, as contained in annex I to this decision;

4. Authorizes the Executive Secretary to sign, on behalf of the Conference of the Parties, the memorandum of understanding referred to in paragraph 3 above;

5. Decides that the Advisory Board of the Climate Technology Centre and Network is hereby established, with the constitution contained in annex II to this decision and with the functions contained in decision 2/CP.17, annex VII, paragraphs 8 and 9;

6. Requests the United Nations Environment Programme, as the host of the Climate Technology Centre, to convene and facilitate the first meeting of the Advisory Board as soon as possible in 2013, preferably prior to the thirty-eighth sessions of the subsidiary bodies;

7. Requests the Advisory Board to determine at its first meeting its operational modalities and rules of procedure for consideration by the subsidiary bodies at their subsequent sessions;

8. Takes note that the United Nations Environment Programme, as the host of the Climate Technology Centre, will ensure that the necessary arrangements are in place for the meetings of the Advisory Board, including privileges and immunities for members of the Board consistent with the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations;11

9. Encourages the United Nations Environment Programme, as the host of the Climate Technology Centre, to make the necessary arrangements to promptly launch the work of the Climate Technology Centre upon the conclusion of the eighteenth session of the Conference of the Parties, including, inter alia, the appointment of a Director of the Climate Technology Centre, who will facilitate the timely recruitment of the staff of the Climate Technology Centre;

10. Agrees that the United Nations Environment Programme, as the host of the Climate Technology Centre, shall provide periodic updates on matters regarding its role as the host of the Climate Technology Centre and make this information available in the annual report of the Climate Technology Centre and Network to the Conference of the Parties through the subsidiary bodies; such reports should also address the concerns raised by Parties on issues such as to enhance the in-house capacity of the host organization on technologies for adaptation;

11. Requests the Climate Technology Centre to consult with the Technology Executive Committee on establishing procedures for preparing a joint annual report as requested by decision 2/CP.17, with a view to making their joint annual report available to the Conference of the Parties through the subsidiary bodies at their thirty-ninth sessions;

12. Invites Parties to nominate their national designated entities for the development and transfer of technologies pursuant to decision 2/CP.17, annex VII, and decision 4/CP.13, paragraph 8, and to communicate this information to the secretariat by 29 March 2013, in order to facilitate the operationalization of the Climate Technology Centre and Network;

13. Reiterates that the financial support to the Climate Technology Centre and Network shall be provided in accordance with decision 2/CP.17, paragraphs 139–141;

14. Reaffirms that the Climate Technology Centre and Network shall be accountable to, and under the guidance of, the Conference of the Parties through the Advisory Board, and may perform such other activities as may be necessary to carry out its functions in accordance with decisions 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17 and other relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties;

15. Reiterates that the Advisory Board of the Climate Technology Centre and Network will put in place the rules and procedures to monitor, assess and evaluate the timeliness and appropriateness of the responses of the Climate Technology Centre and Network to requests by developing country Parties in accordance with decision 2/CP.17, annex VII, paragraphs 7, 9(e) and 20.

Annex I

Memorandum of Understanding between the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations Environment Programme regarding the hosting of the Climate Technology Centre This Memorandum of Understanding

(hereinafter referred to as the “MOU”) is concluded between the Conference of the Parties (hereinafter referred to as “the COP”) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (hereinafter referred to as the Convention) and the United Nations Environment Programme (hereinafter referred to as “UNEP”) (collectively referred to as the Parties) regarding the hosting of the Climate Technology Centre (hereinafter referred to as “the CTC”).

Preamble

Whereas the COP, by decision 1/CP.16, established a Technology Mechanism, consisting of a Technology Executive Committee and a Climate Technology Centre and Network (hereinafter referred to as the CTCN),

Whereas the COP, by decision 2/CP.17, adopted the terms of reference of the CTCN,

Whereas the mission of the CTCN is to stimulate technology cooperation and to enhance the development and transfer of technologies and to assist developing country Parties at their request, consistent with their respective capabilities and national circumstances and priorities, in order to build or strengthen their capacity to identify technology needs, to facilitate the preparation and implementation of technology projects and strategies, taking into account gender considerations to support action on mitigation and adaptation and enhance low-emission and climate-resilient development,

Whereas UNEP, on behalf of a consortium of partner institutions located in both developed and developing countries, submitted a proposal to host the CTC and informed the Committee of Permanent Representatives to UNEP thereof,

Whereas UNEP is the leading organization within the United Nations system in the field of environment and has, in the field of climate change, the mandate, among others: to strengthen the ability of countries, in particular developing countries, to integrate climate change responses into their national development processes and specifically to reduce their vulnerability and build up their resilience to the impacts of climate change; to facilitate the transition to low-carbon societies; to facilitate access to climate change financing for clean technologies; to support both public and private financing mechanisms; to support national processes for implementing sustainable forest management plans; to improve the understanding of climate change science and its use in sound policymaking; and to improve the general understanding of climate change,

Whereas the COP, by decision 14/CP.18, selected UNEP as the organization to host the CTC,

Whereas the UNEP Governing Council, by decision “…”3, at its twenty-seventh regular session, authorized the Executive Director of UNEP to host the CTC in UNEP,

NOW THEREFORE the Parties to this MOU have agreed to the following:

I. Purpose

1. The purpose of this MOU is to stipulate the terms of the relationship between the COP and UNEP with respect to the hosting of the CTC in UNEP in accordance with decision 14/CP.18.

II. Role and responsibilities of the Conference of the Parties

2. The CTCN shall operate within its terms of reference and be accountable to, and under the guidance of, the COP through the Advisory Board in accordance with decisions 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17, 1/CP.18, 14/CP.18 and other relevant decisions of the COP.

3. The Advisory Board shall advise the CTCN on the implementation of its terms of reference and the guidance provided by the COP.

4. The COP shall consider the annual report on the activities of the CTCN prepared in accordance with decisions 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17 and other relevant decisions of the COP, and provide guidance thereon.

5. In taking decisions that would affect the hosting of the CTC in UNEP, the COP shall take into consideration any views and information provided by UNEP.

III. Role and responsibilities of the United Nations Environment Programme

6. UNEP agrees to host the CTC as a dedicated entity within UNEP in accordance with decision ”…”4 of the UNEP Governing Council at its twenty-seventh regular session authorizing the Executive Director to host the CTC in UNEP and the provisions of this MOU.

7. UNEP shall design the organizational structure, manage the CTC and provide the necessary administrative and infrastructural support for the effective functioning of the CTC, in accordance with relevant United Nations and UNEP regulations, rules and procedures and decisions of the UNEP Governing Council, and subject to the financing provided pursuant to section VII below.

8. UNEP shall select and appoint, pursuant to the United Nations Staff Regulations and Rules and in accordance with decision 2/CP.17, the Director of the CTC, who shall be a UNEP staff member and accountable to the Executive Director of UNEP.

9. UNEP shall select and appoint, pursuant to the United Nations Staff Regulations and Rules, a small core staff to support the CTC in an effective and efficient manner, to be managed by the Director of the CTC.

10. UNEP may make use of loans of personnel from the consortium of partner institutions to support the CTC, in accordance with relevant United Nations regulations, rules and procedures.

11. UNEP shall provide periodic updates on matters regarding its role as the host of the CTC and make this information available in the annual report of the CTCN provided to the COP through the subsidiary bodies, prepared pursuant to paragraph 19 below.

12. UNEP shall guide the consortium of partner institutions to effectively support the functioning and operations of the CTC and shall make appropriate arrangements governing their cooperation.

13. The Executive Director of UNEP shall be responsible for the execution of the functions of UNEP under this MOU.

IV. Role and functions of the Climate Technology Centre and Network

14. The CTCN shall operate in accordance with decisions 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17, 1/CP.18, 14/CP.18 and other relevant decisions of the COP.

V. Role and functions of the consortium of partner institutions

15. The consortium of partner institutions shall, following the signature of appropriate agreements governing their cooperation with UNEP, support the operations of the CTC.

VI. Role and functions of the Director and personnel of the Climate Technology Centre

16. The Director shall be accountable to the Executive Director of UNEP for the effectiveness and efficiency of the CTC in carrying out its functions in accordance with relevant United Nations and UNEP regulations, rules and procedures and decisions of the UNEP Governing Council.

17. The Director shall serve as the secretary to the Advisory Board and be responsible for facilitating and providing support to the work of the Board, including making arrangements for the meetings of the Board.

18. The Director shall prepare a budget for the CTCN in accordance with decision 2/CP.17 and in conformity with the relevant regulations, rules and procedures governing the programme budget of UNEP. The CTCN budget will be prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the COP. The part of the CTCN budget managed by UNEP will be included in the programme budget of UNEP as an extra-budgetary item to support the CTCN.

19. The Director shall prepare the annual report on the CTCN for submission to the COP through the subsidiary bodies. The annual report shall be approved by the Advisory Board in accordance with decision 2/CP.17, and shall include the financial status of, and information on the mobilization of other resources for, the CTCN.

20. The Director shall manage the financial resources of the CTCN in accordance with the United Nations Financial Regulations and Rules and the Financial Rules of UNEP, fiduciary, anti-fraud and anti-corruption policies and environmental and social safeguards.

21. The Director and personnel of the CTC shall liaise, as appropriate, with the secretariat of the UNFCCC and other relevant international bodies on issues relating to the activities and operations of the CTC.

VII. Financial arrangements of the Climate Technology Centre and Network

22. The costs associated with the CTC and the mobilization of the services of the Network will be funded from various sources, including the financial mechanism of the Convention, bilateral, multilateral and private-sector channels, philanthropic sources and financial and in-kind contributions from the host organization and participants in the Network.

23. UNEP shall provide financial and in-kind contributions to the CTC, in accordance with paragraph 139 of decision 2/CP.17 and taking into account the proposal of UNEP and the contribution of the consortium of partner institutions.

24. The CTC, in collaboration with UNEP and in consultation with the Advisory Board, shall help to mobilize funds to meet the costs associated with the CTCN.

VIII. Implementation of this Memorandum of Understanding

25. The Advisory Board and UNEP may agree on further arrangements for the implementation of this MOU, which do not in any way amend the existing provisions of this MOU, and report thereon to the COP.

26. Nothing in or relating to this MOU will be deemed a waiver, express or implied, of any of the privileges and immunities of the United Nations, including its subsidiary organs. IX. Dispute settlement

27. The COP, through the Advisory Board, and UNEP shall use their best efforts to amicably resolve any disputes, controversies or claims arising out of or relating to this MOU, including by use of mutually agreed dispute resolution methods.

X. Entire agreement

28. Any annex to this MOU that is concluded in the future will be considered an integral part of this MOU. References to this MOU will be construed as including any annexes, as varied or amended in accordance with the terms of this MOU. This MOU represents the complete understanding between the Parties.

XI. Interpretation

29. This MOU will be interpreted in accordance with relevant decisions of the COP and the UNEP Governing Council.

30. Any Party’s failure to request the implementation of a provision of this MOU will not constitute a waiver of that or any other provision of this MOU. XII. Term of this Memorandum of Understanding

31. The initial term of this MOU shall be five years, with two four-year renewal periods, if so decided by the COP and UNEP.

XIII. Notification and amendment

32. Each Party will promptly notify the other in writing of any anticipated or actual material changes that will affect the execution of this MOU.

33. The Parties may amend this MOU by mutual written agreement.

XIV. Entry into force

34. This MOU will come into force upon the last date of signature by the duly authorized representatives of the Parties.

XV. Termination

35. Subject to section XII above, either Party may terminate this MOU by giving one year’s prior written notice to the other Party. The termination shall come into effect one year from the date of the receipt of such a communication.

36. Following the termination of this MOU, UNEP shall take all necessary actions to conclude its operations relating to the CTC in an expeditious manner. Any termination of this MOU will be without prejudice to any other rights and obligations of the Parties accrued prior to the date of the termination under this MOU or any legal instrument executed pursuant to this MOU.

Annex II

Constitution of the Advisory Board of the Climate Technology Centre and Network

1. The Advisory Board of the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN), with the aim of achieving fair and balanced representation, shall constitute the following:

  • (a) 16 government representatives, comprising equal representation from Parties included in Annex I to the Convention (Annex I Parties) and Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (non-Annex I Parties);
  • (b) The Chair and the Vice-Chair of the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) in their official capacity as TEC representatives;
  • (c) One of the Co-Chairs, or a member designated by the Co-Chairs, of the Green Climate Fund Board in his/her official capacity as a Green Climate Fund representative;
  • (d) The Chair or the Vice-Chair of the Adaptation Committee, or a member designated by the Chair and the Vice-Chair, in his/her official capacity as an Adaptation Committee representative;
  • (e) One of the Co-Chairs, or a member designated by the Co-Chairs, of the Standing Committee in his/her official capacity as a Standing Committee representative;
  • (f) The Director of the CTCN in his/her official capacity as the CTCN representative;
  • (g) Three representatives, with one being selected by each of the following UNFCCC observer organization constituencies, taking into account balanced geographical representation: environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs), business and industry non-governmental organizations (BINGOs) and research and independent nongovernmental organizations (RINGOs), with relevant expertise in technology, finance or business, received by the host organization of the Climate Technology Centre (CTC), taking into account balanced geographical representation.

2. The Advisory Board will invite expert observers to attend meetings based on specific agenda needs, according to modalities and procedures developed by the Advisory Board at its first meeting.

3. The director of the CTCN shall be the secretary of the Advisory Board.

4. Government representatives shall be nominated by their respective groups or constituencies and elected by the Conference of the Parties (COP). Groups or constituencies are encouraged to nominate the government representatives to the Advisory Board, with a view to achieving an appropriate balance of expertise relevant to the development and transfer of technologies for adaptation and mitigation, taking into account the need to achieve gender balance in accordance with decisions 36/CP.7 and 23/CP.18.

5. Government representatives elected to the Advisory Board shall serve for a term of two years and shall be eligible to serve a maximum of two consecutive terms of office. The following rules shall apply:

  • (a) Half of the representatives shall be elected initially for a term of three years and half shall be elected for a term of two years;
  • (b) Thereafter, the COP shall elect half of the representatives every year for a term of two years;
  • (c) The representatives shall remain in office until their successors are elected.

6. If a government representative of the Advisory Board resigns or is otherwise unable to complete the assigned term of office or to perform the functions of that office, the Advisory Board may decide, bearing in mind the proximity of the next session of the COP, to appoint another representative from the same constituency to replace said representative for the remainder of that representative’s mandate, in which case the appointment shall count as one term.

7. The representatives of the Advisory Board referred to in paragraph 1(b) above shall serve in accordance with their term of office.

8. The representatives of the Advisory Board referred to in paragraph 1(c), (d) and (e) above shall serve in accordance with their term of office.

9. The representatives of the Advisory Board referred to in paragraph 1(g) above shall be eligible to serve for a maximum term of office of one year.

10. Decisions of the Advisory Board will be taken by consensus by only the Advisory Board representatives referred to in paragraph 1(a) and (b) above. These representatives will specify in the modalities and procedures of the Advisory Board how to adopt decisions in the event that all efforts at reaching consensus have been exhausted.

11. The Advisory Board shall elect annually a Chair and a Vice-Chair from among the representatives referred to in paragraph 1(a) above for a term of one year each, with one being from an Annex I Party and the other being from a non-Annex I Party. The positions of Chair and Vice-Chair shall alternate annually between a representative from an Annex I Party and a representative from a non-Annex I Party.

12. If the Chair is temporarily unable to fulfil the obligations of the office, the ViceChair shall serve as Chair. In the absence of the Chair and the Vice-Chair at a particular meeting, any other representatives identified in paragraph 1(a) above designated by the Advisory Board shall temporarily serve as the Chair of that meeting.

13. If the Chair or the Vice-chair is unable to complete the term of office, the Advisory Board shall elect a replacement to complete the term of office, taking into account paragraph 6 above.

14. The meetings of the Advisory Board shall be open to attendance, as observers, by Parties, the secretariat and observer organizations, except where otherwise decided by the Advisory Board.

15. The CTC shall support and facilitate the work of the Advisory Board of the CTCN.

16. The constitution of the Advisory Board shall be reviewed by the COP in 2020.

Gender reference

Acknowledges the need for further work to enhance the understanding of how loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change affects those segments of the population that are already vulnerable owing to geography, gender, age, indigenous or minority status, or disability, and how the implementation of approaches to address loss and damage can benefit those segments of the population. In addition, it acknowledges the need for strengthening and supporting the collection and management of relevant data, including gender-disaggregated data.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling the relevant provisions of the Convention,

Also recalling decisions 1/CP.16 and 7/CP.17 and the relevant conclusions of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its thirty-fourth and thirty-sixth sessions,

Recognizing the need to strengthen international cooperation and expertise in order to understand and reduce loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including impacts related to extreme weather events and slow onset events,

Highlighting the important and fundamental role of the Convention in addressing loss and damage associated with climate change impacts, especially in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, including by promoting leadership, collaboration and cooperation, at the national, regional and international levels and for a broad range of sectors and ecosystems, in order to enable coherent and synergistic approaches to address such loss and damage,

Noting the relevant work undertaken by other bodies, work programmes and workplans, and processes under the Convention,

Taking note of the relevant knowledge and ongoing work outside of the Convention, including the Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, the Hyogo Framework for Action and the Global Framework for Climate Services of the World Meteorological Organization,

Reaffirming the need for Parties to take precautionary measures, in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Convention, to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate change and mitigate its adverse effects, and underlining that the lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as reason for postponing action,

Appreciating the progress made in the implementation, and the importance of the continuation, of the work programme to address the loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change,

Acknowledging ongoing initiatives relevant to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change at the national, international and regional levels and that there is a need to scale up these efforts, including by enhancing support and coordination in the broader context of climate-resilient sustainable development, 1.

Acknowledges the need to enhance support, including finance, technology and capacity-building, for relevant actions;

2. Notes that a range of approaches, methods and tools is available to assess the risk of and to respond to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, and that their selection depends upon regional, national and local capacity, context and circumstances, and involves the engagement of all relevant stakeholders;

3. Also notes that there are important linkages between extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the importance of building comprehensive climate risk management approaches;

4. Agrees that comprehensive, inclusive and strategic responses are needed to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;

5. Also agrees that the role of the Convention in promoting the implementation of approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change includes, inter alia, the following:

  • (a) Enhancing knowledge and understanding of comprehensive risk management approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including slow onset impacts;
  • (b) Strengthening dialogue, coordination, coherence and synergies among relevant stakeholders;
  • (c) Enhancing action and support, including finance, technology and capacitybuilding, to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;

6. Invites all Parties, taking into account common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and specific national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, to enhance action on addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, taking into account national development processes, by undertaking, inter alia, the following:

  • (a) Assessing the risk of loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including slow onset impacts;
  • (b) Identifying options and designing and implementing country-driven risk management strategies and approaches, including risk reduction, and risk transfer and risksharing mechanisms;
  • (c) The systematic observation of, and data collection on, the impacts of climate change, in particular slow onset impacts, and accounting for losses, as appropriate;
  • (d) Implementing comprehensive climate risk management approaches, including scaling up and replicating good practices and pilot initiatives;
  • (e) Promoting an enabling environment that would encourage investment and the involvement of relevant stakeholders in climate risk management;
  • (f) Involving vulnerable communities and populations, and civil society, the private sector and other relevant stakeholders, in the assessment of and response to loss and damage;
  • (g) Enhancing access to, sharing and the use of data, at the regional, national and subnational levels, such as hydrometeorological data and metadata, on a voluntary basis, to facilitate the assessment and management of climate-related risk;

7. Acknowledges the further work to advance the understanding of and expertise on loss and damage, which includes, inter alia, the following:

  • (a) Enhancing the understanding of:
  • (i) The risk of slow onset events, and approaches to address them;
  • (ii) Non-economic losses and damages;
  • (iii) How loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change affects those segments of the population that are already vulnerable owing to geography, gender, age, indigenous or minority status, or disability, and how the implementation of approaches to address loss and damage can benefit those segments of the population;
  • (iv) How to identify and develop appropriate approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including to address slow onset events and extreme weather events, including through risk reduction, risk sharing and risk transfer tools, and approaches to rehabilitate from loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;
  • (v) How approaches to address loss and damage associated with the impacts of climate change may be integrated into climate-resilient development processes;
  • (vi) How impacts of climate change are affecting patterns of migration, displacement and human mobility;
  • (b) Strengthening and supporting the collection and management of relevant data, including gender-disaggregated data, for assessing the risk of loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;
  • (c) Enhancing coordination, synergies and linkages among various organizations, institutions and frameworks, to enable the development and support of approaches to address loss and damage, including slow onset events and comprehensive climate risk management strategies, including risk transfer tools;
  • (d) Strengthening and promoting regional collaboration, centres and networks on strategies and approaches, including to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including slow onset events, including through risk reduction, risk sharing and risk transfer initiatives;
  • (e) Enhanced capacity-building at the national and regional levels to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;
  • (f) Strengthening institutional arrangements at the national, regional and international levels to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;

8. Requests developed country Parties to provide developing country Parties with finance, technology and capacity-building, in accordance with decision 1/CP.16 and other relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties;

9. Decides to establish, at its nineteenth session, institutional arrangements, such as an international mechanism, including functions and modalities, elaborated in accordance with the role of the Convention as defined in paragraph 5 above, to address loss and damage associated with the impacts of climate change in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change;

10. Requests the secretariat to carry out the following interim activities under the work programme on loss and damage, prior to the thirty-ninth session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation:

  • (a) An expert meeting to consider future needs, including capacity needs associated with possible approaches to address slow onset events, and to prepare a report for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its thirty-ninth session;
  • (b) Preparation of a technical paper on non-economic losses;
  • (c) Preparation of a technical paper on gaps in existing institutional arrangements within and outside of the Convention to address loss and damage, including those related to slow onset events;

11. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to consider the technical paper referred to in paragraph 10(c) above in developing the arrangements referred to in paragraph 9 above;

12. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to elaborate, at its thirtyeighth session, activities under the work programme on loss and damage, to further the understanding of and expertise on loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, taking into account the provisions contained in paragraph 7 above;

13. Takes note of the estimated budgetary implications of the activities to be undertaken by the secretariat pursuant to the provisions contained in this decision;

14. Further requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources; in the absence of adequate additional funding, as indicated in the budgetary estimates referred to above, the secretariat may not be in a position to undertake the requested activities.

Gender reference

Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity.

Elaborated language

Annex

Paris Agreement

The Parties to this Agreement,

Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”,

Pursuant to the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action established by decision 1/CP.17 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention at its seventeenth session,

In pursuit of the objective of the Convention, and being guided by its principles, including the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances,

Recognizing the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge,

Also recognizing the specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, as provided for in the Convention,

Taking full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed countries with regard to funding and transfer of technology,

Recognizing that Parties may be affected not only by climate change, but also by the impacts of the measures taken in response to it,

Emphasizing the intrinsic relationship that climate change actions, responses and impacts have with equitable access to sustainable development and eradication of poverty,

Recognizing the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change,

Taking into account the imperatives of a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities,

Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity,

Recognizing the importance of the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of the greenhouse gases referred to in the Convention,

Noting the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems, including oceans, and the protection of biodiversity, recognized by some cultures as Mother Earth, and noting the importance for some of the concept of “climate justice”, when taking action to address climate change,

Affirming the importance of education, training, public awareness, public participation, public access to information and cooperation at all levels on the matters addressed in this Agreement,

Recognizing the importance of the engagements of all levels of government and various actors, in accordance with respective national legislations of Parties, in addressing climate change,

Also recognizing that sustainable lifestyles and sustainable patterns of consumption and production, with developed country Parties taking the lead, play an important role in addressing climate change,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1

      For the purpose of this Agreement, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention shall apply. In addition:

  1. “Convention” means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992;
  2. “Conference  of  the  Parties”  means  the  Conference  of  the  Parties  to  the Convention;
  3. “Party” means a Party to this Agreement.

Article 2

  1. This Agreement, in enhancing the implementation of the Convention, including its objective, aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, including by

 

  1. Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;
  2. Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production; and
  3. Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.

      2.This Agreement will be implemented to reflect equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and          respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

Article 3

As nationally determined contributions to the global response to climate change, all Parties are to undertake and communicate ambitious efforts as defined in Articles 4, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 13 with the view to achieving the purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2. The efforts of all Parties will represent a progression over time, while recognizing the need to support developing country Parties for the effective implementation of this Agreement.

Article 4

     1. In order to achieve the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2, Parties aim to reach global peaking of                         greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking will take longer for developing country                     Parties, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with best available science, so as to achieve a                 balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half           of this century, on the basis of equity, and in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty.

  1. Each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions that it intends to achieve. Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of such contributions.
  2. Each Party’s successive nationally determined contribution will represent a progression beyond the Party’s then current nationally determined contribution and reflect its highest possible ambition, reflecting its common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
  3. Developed country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their mitigation efforts, and are encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of different national circumstances.
  4. Support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, in accordance with Articles 9, 10 and 11, recognizing that enhanced support for developing country Parties will allow for higher ambition in their actions.
  5. The least developed countries and small island developing States may prepare and communicate strategies, plans and actions for low greenhouse gas emissions development reflecting their special circumstances.
  6. Mitigation co-benefits resulting from Parties’ adaptation actions and/or economic diversification plans can contribute to mitigation outcomes under this Article.
  7. In communicating their nationally determined contributions, all Parties shall provide the information necessary for clarity, transparency and understanding in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  8. Each Party shall communicate a nationally determined contribution every five years in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and be informed by the outcomes of the global stocktake referred to in Article 14.
  9. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall consider common time frames for nationally determined contributions at its first session.
  10. A Party may at any time adjust its existing nationally determined contribution with a view to enhancing its level of ambition, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  11. Nationally determined contributions communicated by Parties shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
  12. Parties shall account for their nationally determined contributions. In accounting for anthropogenic emissions and removals corresponding to their nationally determined contributions, Parties shall promote environmental integrity, transparency, accuracy, completeness, comparability and consistency, and ensure the avoidance of double counting, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  13. In the context of their nationally determined contributions, when recognizing and implementing mitigation actions with respect to anthropogenic emissions and removals, Parties should take into account, as appropriate, existing methods and guidance under the Convention, in the light of the provisions of paragraph 13 of this Article.
  14. Parties shall take into consideration in the implementation of this Agreement the concerns of Parties with economies most affected by the impacts of response measures, particularly developing country Parties.
  15. Parties, including regional economic integration organizations and their member States, that have reached an agreement to act jointly under paragraph 2 of this Article shall notify the secretariat of the terms of that agreement, including the emission level allocated to each Party within the relevant time period, when they communicate their nationally determined contributions. The secretariat shall in turn inform the Parties and signatories to the Convention of the terms of that agreement.
  16. Each party to such an agreement shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement referred to in paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
  17. If Parties acting jointly do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic integration organization which is itself a Party to this Agreement, each member State of that regional economic integration organization individually, and together with the regional economic integration organization, shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement communicated under paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
  18. All Parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies, mindful of Article 2 taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

Article 5

  1. Parties should take action to conserve and enhance, as appropriate, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the Convention, including forests.
  2. Parties are encouraged to take action to implement and support, including through results-based payments, the existing framework as set out in related guidance and decisions already agreed under the Convention for: policy approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries; and alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, while reaffirming the importance of incentivizing, as appropriate, non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches.

Article 6

  1. Parties recognize that some Parties choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions to allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions and to promote sustainable development and environmental integrity.
  2. Parties shall, where engaging on a voluntary basis in cooperative approaches that involve the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards nationally determined contributions, promote sustainable development and ensure environmental integrity and transparency, including in governance, and shall apply robust accounting to ensure, inter alia, the avoidance of double counting, consistent with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  1. The use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes to achieve nationally determined contributions under this Agreement shall be voluntary and authorized by participating Parties.
  2. A mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development is hereby established under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement for use by Parties on a voluntary basis. It shall be supervised by a body designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, and shall aim:
    1. To promote the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development;
    2. To incentivize and facilitate participation in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by public and private entities authorized by a Party;
    3. To contribute to the reduction of emission levels in the host Party, which will benefit from mitigation activities resulting in emission reductions that can also be used by another Party to fulfil its nationally determined contribution; and
    4. To deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions.
  3. Emission reductions resulting from the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall not be used to demonstrate achievement of the host Party’s nationally determined contribution if used by another Party to demonstrate achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
  4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall ensure that a share of the proceeds from activities under the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article is used to cover administrative expenses as well as to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.
  5. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall adopt rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article at its first session.
  6. Parties recognize the importance of integrated, holistic and balanced non-market approaches being available to Parties to assist in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in a coordinated and effective manner, including through, inter alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, as appropriate. These approaches shall aim to:
    1. Promote mitigation and adaptation ambition;
    2. Enhance public and private sector participation in the implementation of nationally determined contributions; and
    3. Enable opportunities for coordination across instruments and relevant institutional arrangements.
  7. A framework for non-market approaches to sustainable development is hereby defined to promote the non-market approaches referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article.

Article 7

     1. Parties hereby establish the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and                reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an                    adequate adaptation response in the context of the temperature goal referred to in Article 2.

  1. Parties recognize that adaptation is a global challenge faced by all with local, subnational, national, regional and international dimensions, and that it is a key component of and makes a contribution to the long-term global response to climate change to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems, taking into account the urgent and immediate needs of those developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
  2. The adaptation efforts of developing country Parties shall be recognized, in accordance with the modalities to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session.
  3. Parties recognize that the current need for adaptation is significant and that greater levels of mitigation can reduce the need for additional adaptation efforts, and that greater adaptation needs can involve greater adaptation costs.
  4. Parties acknowledge that adaptation action should follow a country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate.
  5. Parties recognize the importance of support for and international cooperation on adaptation efforts and the importance of taking into account the needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
  6. Parties should strengthen their cooperation on enhancing action on adaptation, taking into account the Cancun Adaptation Framework, including with regard to:
    1. Sharing information, good practices, experiences and lessons learned, including, as appropriate, as these relate to science, planning, policies and implementation in relation to adaptation actions;
    2. Strengthening institutional arrangements, including those under the Convention that serve this Agreement, to support the synthesis of relevant information and knowledge, and the provision of technical support and guidance to Parties;
    3. Strengthening scientific knowledge on climate, including research, systematic observation of the climate system and early warning systems, in a manner that informs climate services and supports decision-making;
    4. Assisting developing country Parties in identifying effective adaptation practices, adaptation needs, priorities, support provided and received for adaptation actions and efforts, and challenges and gaps, in a manner consistent with encouraging good practices; and
    5. Improving the effectiveness and durability of adaptation actions.
  7. United Nations specialized organizations and agencies are encouraged to support the efforts of Parties to implement the actions referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article, taking into account the provisions of paragraph 5 of this Article.
  8. Each Party shall, as appropriate, engage in adaptation planning processes and the implementation of actions, including the development or enhancement of relevant plans, policies and/or contributions, which may include:
  1. The implementation of adaptation actions, undertakings and/or efforts;
  2. The process to formulate and implement national adaptation plans;
  3. The assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability, with a view to formulating nationally determined prioritized actions, taking into account vulnerable people, places and ecosystems;
  4. Monitoring and evaluating and learning from adaptation plans, policies, programmes and actions; and
  5. Building the resilience of socioeconomic and ecological systems, including through economic diversification and sustainable management of natural resources.
  1. Each Party should, as appropriate, submit and update periodically an adaptation communication, which may include its priorities, implementation and support needs, plans and actions, without creating any additional burden for developing country Parties.
  2. The adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be, as appropriate, submitted and updated periodically, as a component of or in conjunction with other communications or documents, including a national adaptation plan, a nationally determined contribution as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 2, and/or a national communication.
  3. The adaptation communications referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
  4. Continuous and enhanced international support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of paragraphs 7, 9, 10 and 11 of this Article, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  5. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall, inter alia:
    1. Recognize adaptation efforts of developing country Parties;
    2. Enhance the implementation of adaptation action taking into account the adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article;
    3. Review the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation and support provided for adaptation; and
    4. Review the overall progress made in achieving the global goal on adaptation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

Article 8

  1. Parties recognize the importance of averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the role of sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage.
  2. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts shall be subject to the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and may be enhanced and strengthened, as determined by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  3. Parties should enhance understanding, action and support, including through the Warsaw International Mechanism, as appropriate, on a cooperative and facilitative basis with respect to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change.
  4. Accordingly, areas of cooperation and facilitation to enhance understanding, action and support may include:
    1. Early warning systems;
    2. Emergency preparedness;
    3. Slow onset events;
    4. Events that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage;
    5. Comprehensive risk assessment and management;
    6. Risk insurance facilities, climate risk pooling and other insurance solutions;
    7. Non-economic losses; and
    8. Resilience of communities, livelihoods and ecosystems.
  5. The Warsaw International Mechanism shall collaborate with existing bodies and expert groups under the Agreement, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Agreement.

Article 9

  1. Developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention.
  2. Other Parties are encouraged to provide or continue to provide such support voluntarily.
  3. As part of a global effort, developed country Parties should continue to take the lead in mobilizing climate finance from a wide variety of sources, instruments and channels, noting the significant role of public funds, through a variety of actions, including supporting country-driven strategies, and taking into account the needs and priorities of developing country Parties. Such mobilization of climate finance should represent a progression beyond previous efforts.
  4. The provision of scaled-up financial resources should aim to achieve a balance between adaptation and mitigation, taking into account country-driven strategies, and the priorities and needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and have significant capacity constraints, such as the least developed countries and small island developing States, considering the need for public and grant-based resources for adaptation.
  5. Developed country Parties shall biennially communicate indicative quantitative and qualitative information related to paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, as applicable, including, as available, projected levels of public financial resources to be provided to developing country Parties. Other Parties providing resources are encouraged to communicate biennially such information on a voluntary basis.
  6. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account the relevant information provided by developed country Parties and/or Agreement bodies on efforts related to climate finance.
  7. Developed country Parties shall provide transparent and consistent information on support for developing country Parties provided and mobilized through public interventions biennially in accordance with the modalities, procedures and guidelines to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, at its first session, as stipulated in Article 13, paragraph 13. Other Parties are encouraged to do so.
  8. The Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including its operating entities, shall serve as the financial mechanism of this Agreement.
  9. The institutions serving this Agreement, including the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, shall aim to ensure efficient access to financial resources through simplified approval procedures and enhanced readiness support for developing country Parties, in particular for the least developed countries and small island developing States, in the context of their national climate strategies and plans.

Article 10

  1. Parties share a long-term vision on the importance of fully realizing technology development and transfer in order to improve resilience to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  2. Parties, noting the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions under this Agreement and recognizing existing technology deployment and dissemination efforts, shall strengthen cooperative action on technology development and transfer.
  3. The Technology Mechanism established under the Convention shall serve this Agreement.
  4. A technology framework is hereby established to provide overarching guidance to the work of the Technology Mechanism in promoting and facilitating enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to support the implementation of this Agreement, in pursuit of the long-term vision referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.
  5. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort shall be, as appropriate, supported, including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to developing country Parties.
  6. Support, including financial support, shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, including for strengthening cooperative action on technology development and transfer at different stages of the technology cycle, with a view to achieving a balance between support for mitigation and adaptation. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account available information on efforts related to support on technology development and transfer for developing country Parties.

Article 11

  1. Capacity-building under this Agreement should enhance the capacity and ability of developing country Parties, in particular countries with the least capacity, such as the least developed countries, and those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, such as small island developing States, to take effective climate change action, including, inter alia, to implement adaptation and mitigation actions, and should facilitate technology development, dissemination and deployment, access to climate finance, relevant aspects of education, training and public awareness, and the transparent, timely and accurate communication of information.
  2. Capacity-building should be country-driven, based on and responsive to national needs, and foster country ownership of Parties, in particular, for developing country Parties, including at the national, subnational and local levels. Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting and gender-responsive.
  3. All Parties should cooperate to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement. Developed country Parties should enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing country Parties.
  4. All Parties enhancing the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement, including through regional, bilateral and multilateral approaches, shall regularly communicate on these actions or measures on capacity-building. Developing country Parties should regularly communicate progress made on implementing capacity-building plans, policies, actions or measures to implement this Agreement.
  5. Capacity-building activities shall be enhanced through appropriate institutional arrangements to support the implementation of this Agreement, including the appropriate institutional arrangements established under the Convention that serve this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, consider and adopt a decision on the initial institutional arrangements for capacity-building.

Article 12

Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement.

Article 13

  1. In order to build mutual trust and confidence and to promote effective implementation, an enhanced transparency framework for action and support, with built-in flexibility which takes into account Parties’ different capacities and builds upon collective experience is hereby established.
  2. The transparency framework shall provide flexibility in the implementation of the provisions of this Article to those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities. The modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article shall reflect such flexibility.
  3. The transparency framework shall build on and enhance the transparency arrangements under the Convention, recognizing the special circumstances of the least developed countries and small island developing States, and be implemented in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner, respectful of national sovereignty, and avoid placing undue burden on Parties.
  4. The transparency arrangements under the Convention, including national communications, biennial reports and biennial update reports, international assessment and review and international consultation and analysis, shall form part of the experience drawn upon for the development of the modalities, procedures and guidelines under paragraph 13 of this Article.
  5. The purpose of the framework for transparency of action is to provide a clear understanding of climate change action in the light of the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2, including clarity and tracking of progress towards achieving Parties’ individual nationally determined contributions under Article 4, and Parties’ adaptation actions under Article 7, including good practices, priorities, needs and gaps, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
  6. The purpose of the framework for transparency of support is to provide clarity on support provided and received by relevant individual Parties in the context of climate change actions under Articles 4, 7, 9, 10 and 11, and, to the extent possible, to provide a full overview of aggregate financial support provided, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
  7. Each Party shall regularly provide the following information:
    1. A national inventory report of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases, prepared using good practice methodologies accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement; and
    2. Information necessary to track progress made in implementing and achieving its nationally determined contribution under Article 4.
  8. Each Party should also provide information related to climate change impacts and adaptation under Article 7, as appropriate.
  9. Developed country Parties shall, and other Parties that provide support should, provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support provided to developing country Parties under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  10. Developing country Parties should provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support needed and received under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  11. Information submitted by each Party under paragraphs 7 and 9 of this Article shall undergo a technical expert review, in accordance with decision 1/CP.21. For those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities, the review process shall include assistance in identifying capacity-building needs. In addition, each Party shall participate in a facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress with respect to efforts under Article 9, and its respective implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
  12. The technical expert review under this paragraph shall consist of a consideration of the Party’s support provided, as relevant, and its implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution. The review shall also identify areas of improvement for the Party, and include a review of the consistency of the information with the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article, taking into account the flexibility accorded to the Party under paragraph 2 of this Article. The review shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of developing country Parties.
  13. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, building on experience from the arrangements related to transparency under the Convention, and elaborating on the provisions in this Article, adopt common modalities, procedures and guidelines, as appropriate, for the transparency of action and support.
  14. Support shall be provided to developing countries for the implementation of this Article.
  15. Support shall also be provided for the building of transparency-related capacity of developing country Parties on a continuous basis.

Article 14

  1. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall periodically take stock of the implementation of this Agreement to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement and its long-term goals (referred to as the “global stocktake”). It shall do so in a comprehensive and facilitative manner, considering mitigation, adaptation and the means of implementation and support, and in the light of equity and the best available science.
  2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall undertake its first global stocktake in 2023 and every five years thereafter unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  3. The outcome of the global stocktake shall inform Parties in updating and enhancing, in a nationally determined manner, their actions and support in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Agreement, as well as in enhancing international cooperation for climate action.

Article 15

  1. A mechanism to facilitate implementation of and promote compliance with the provisions of this Agreement is hereby established.
  2. The mechanism referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall consist of a committee that shall be expert-based and facilitative in nature and function in a manner that is transparent, non-adversarial and non-punitive. The committee shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.
  3. The committee shall operate under the modalities and procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session and report annually to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 16

  1. The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
  3. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, any member of the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.
  4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall keep under regular review the implementation of this Agreement and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote its effective implementation. It shall perform the functions assigned to it by this Agreement and shall:
    1. Establish such subsidiary bodies as deemed necessary for the implementation of this Agreement; and
    2. Exercise such other functions as may be required for the implementation of this Agreement.
  5. The rules of procedure of the Conference of the Parties and the financial procedures applied under the Convention shall be applied mutatis mutandis under this Agreement, except as may be otherwise decided by consensus by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  6. The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be convened by the secretariat in conjunction with the first session of the Conference of the Parties that is scheduled after the date of entry into force of this Agreement. Subsequent ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  7. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
  8. The United Nations and its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by this Agreement and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as an observer, may be so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure referred to in paragraph 5 of this Article.

Article 17

  1. The secretariat established by Article 8 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat of this Agreement.
  2. Article 8, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the functions of the secretariat, and Article 8, paragraph 3, of the Convention, on the arrangements made for the functioning of the secretariat, shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. The secretariat shall, in addition, exercise the functions assigned to it under this Agreement and by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 18

  1. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention shall serve, respectively, as the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement. The provisions of the Convention relating to the functioning of these two bodies shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the Convention.
  2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the subsidiary bodies. When the subsidiary 

bodies serve as the subsidiary bodies of this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.

3. When the subsidiary bodies established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention exercise their functions with regard to matters concerning this Agreement, any member of the bureaux of those subsidiary bodies representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 19

  1. Subsidiary bodies or other institutional arrangements established by or under the Convention, other than those referred to in this Agreement, shall serve this Agreement upon a decision of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall specify the functions to be exercised by such subsidiary bodies or arrangements.
  2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement may provide further guidance to such subsidiary bodies and institutional arrangements.

Article 20

  1. This Agreement shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the Convention. It shall be open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017. Thereafter, this Agreement shall be open for accession from the day following the date on which it is closed for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
  2. Any regional economic integration organization that becomes a Party to this Agreement without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under this Agreement. In the case of regional economic integration organizations with one or more member States that are Parties to this Agreement, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under this Agreement. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under this Agreement concurrently.
  3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by this Agreement. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.

Article 21

  1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 per cent of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
  2. Solely for the limited purpose of paragraph 1 of this Article, “total global greenhouse gas emissions” means the most up-to-date amount communicated on or before the date of adoption of this Agreement by the Parties to the Convention.
  1. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Agreement or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 of this Article for entry into force have been fulfilled, this Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
  2. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by its member States.

Article 22

The provisions of Article 15 of the Convention on the adoption of amendments to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

Article 23

  1. The provisions of Article 16 of the Convention on the adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
  2. Annexes to this Agreement shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise expressly provided for, a reference to this Agreement constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall be restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific, technical, procedural or administrative character.

Article 24

The provisions of Article 14 of the Convention on settlement of disputes shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

Article 25

  1. Each Party shall have one vote, except as provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article.
  2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Agreement. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.

Article 26

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Agreement.

Article 27

No reservations may be made to this Agreement.

Article 28

  1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Agreement has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from this Agreement by giving written notification to the Depositary.
  2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.
  3. Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from this Agreement.

                                                    Article 29

The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations.

DONE at Paris this twelfth day of December two thousand and fifteen.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Agreement.

 

Gender reference

Parties acknowledge that adaptation action should follow a country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate.,

Elaborated language

Annex

Paris Agreement

The Parties to this Agreement,

Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”,

Pursuant to the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action established by decision 1/CP.17 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention at its seventeenth session,

In pursuit of the objective of the Convention, and being guided by its principles, including the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances,

Recognizing the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge,

Also recognizing the specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, as provided for in the Convention,

Taking full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed countries with regard to funding and transfer of technology,

Recognizing that Parties may be affected not only by climate change, but also by the impacts of the measures taken in response to it,

Emphasizing the intrinsic relationship that climate change actions, responses and impacts have with equitable access to sustainable development and eradication of poverty,

Recognizing the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change,

Taking into account the imperatives of a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities,

Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity,

Recognizing the importance of the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of the greenhouse gases referred to in the Convention,

Noting the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems, including oceans, and the protection of biodiversity, recognized by some cultures as Mother Earth, and noting the importance for some of the concept of “climate justice”, when taking action to address climate change,

Affirming the importance of education, training, public awareness, public participation, public access to information and cooperation at all levels on the matters addressed in this Agreement,

Recognizing the importance of the engagements of all levels of government and various actors, in accordance with respective national legislations of Parties, in addressing climate change,

Also recognizing that sustainable lifestyles and sustainable patterns of consumption and production, with developed country Parties taking the lead, play an important role in addressing climate change,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1

      For the purpose of this Agreement, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention shall apply. In addition:

  1. “Convention” means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992;
  2. “Conference  of  the  Parties”  means  the  Conference  of  the  Parties  to  the Convention;
  3. “Party” means a Party to this Agreement.

Article 2

  1. This Agreement, in enhancing the implementation of the Convention, including its objective, aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, including by

 

  1. Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;
  2. Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production; and
  3. Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.

      2.This Agreement will be implemented to reflect equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and          respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

Article 3

As nationally determined contributions to the global response to climate change, all Parties are to undertake and communicate ambitious efforts as defined in Articles 4, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 13 with the view to achieving the purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2. The efforts of all Parties will represent a progression over time, while recognizing the need to support developing country Parties for the effective implementation of this Agreement.

Article 4

     1. In order to achieve the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2, Parties aim to reach global peaking of                         greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking will take longer for developing country                     Parties, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with best available science, so as to achieve a                 balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half           of this century, on the basis of equity, and in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty.

  1. Each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions that it intends to achieve. Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of such contributions.
  2. Each Party’s successive nationally determined contribution will represent a progression beyond the Party’s then current nationally determined contribution and reflect its highest possible ambition, reflecting its common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
  3. Developed country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their mitigation efforts, and are encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of different national circumstances.
  4. Support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, in accordance with Articles 9, 10 and 11, recognizing that enhanced support for developing country Parties will allow for higher ambition in their actions.
  5. The least developed countries and small island developing States may prepare and communicate strategies, plans and actions for low greenhouse gas emissions development reflecting their special circumstances.
  6. Mitigation co-benefits resulting from Parties’ adaptation actions and/or economic diversification plans can contribute to mitigation outcomes under this Article.
  7. In communicating their nationally determined contributions, all Parties shall provide the information necessary for clarity, transparency and understanding in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  8. Each Party shall communicate a nationally determined contribution every five years in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and be informed by the outcomes of the global stocktake referred to in Article 14.
  9. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall consider common time frames for nationally determined contributions at its first session.
  10. A Party may at any time adjust its existing nationally determined contribution with a view to enhancing its level of ambition, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  11. Nationally determined contributions communicated by Parties shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
  12. Parties shall account for their nationally determined contributions. In accounting for anthropogenic emissions and removals corresponding to their nationally determined contributions, Parties shall promote environmental integrity, transparency, accuracy, completeness, comparability and consistency, and ensure the avoidance of double counting, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  13. In the context of their nationally determined contributions, when recognizing and implementing mitigation actions with respect to anthropogenic emissions and removals, Parties should take into account, as appropriate, existing methods and guidance under the Convention, in the light of the provisions of paragraph 13 of this Article.
  14. Parties shall take into consideration in the implementation of this Agreement the concerns of Parties with economies most affected by the impacts of response measures, particularly developing country Parties.
  15. Parties, including regional economic integration organizations and their member States, that have reached an agreement to act jointly under paragraph 2 of this Article shall notify the secretariat of the terms of that agreement, including the emission level allocated to each Party within the relevant time period, when they communicate their nationally determined contributions. The secretariat shall in turn inform the Parties and signatories to the Convention of the terms of that agreement.
  16. Each party to such an agreement shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement referred to in paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
  17. If Parties acting jointly do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic integration organization which is itself a Party to this Agreement, each member State of that regional economic integration organization individually, and together with the regional economic integration organization, shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement communicated under paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
  18. All Parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies, mindful of Article 2 taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

Article 5

  1. Parties should take action to conserve and enhance, as appropriate, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the Convention, including forests.
  2. Parties are encouraged to take action to implement and support, including through results-based payments, the existing framework as set out in related guidance and decisions already agreed under the Convention for: policy approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries; and alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, while reaffirming the importance of incentivizing, as appropriate, non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches.

Article 6

  1. Parties recognize that some Parties choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions to allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions and to promote sustainable development and environmental integrity.
  2. Parties shall, where engaging on a voluntary basis in cooperative approaches that involve the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards nationally determined contributions, promote sustainable development and ensure environmental integrity and transparency, including in governance, and shall apply robust accounting to ensure, inter alia, the avoidance of double counting, consistent with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  1. The use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes to achieve nationally determined contributions under this Agreement shall be voluntary and authorized by participating Parties.
  2. A mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development is hereby established under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement for use by Parties on a voluntary basis. It shall be supervised by a body designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, and shall aim:
    1. To promote the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development;
    2. To incentivize and facilitate participation in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by public and private entities authorized by a Party;
    3. To contribute to the reduction of emission levels in the host Party, which will benefit from mitigation activities resulting in emission reductions that can also be used by another Party to fulfil its nationally determined contribution; and
    4. To deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions.
  3. Emission reductions resulting from the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall not be used to demonstrate achievement of the host Party’s nationally determined contribution if used by another Party to demonstrate achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
  4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall ensure that a share of the proceeds from activities under the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article is used to cover administrative expenses as well as to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.
  5. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall adopt rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article at its first session.
  6. Parties recognize the importance of integrated, holistic and balanced non-market approaches being available to Parties to assist in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in a coordinated and effective manner, including through, inter alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, as appropriate. These approaches shall aim to:
    1. Promote mitigation and adaptation ambition;
    2. Enhance public and private sector participation in the implementation of nationally determined contributions; and
    3. Enable opportunities for coordination across instruments and relevant institutional arrangements.
  7. A framework for non-market approaches to sustainable development is hereby defined to promote the non-market approaches referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article.

Article 7

     1. Parties hereby establish the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and                reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an                    adequate adaptation response in the context of the temperature goal referred to in Article 2.

  1. Parties recognize that adaptation is a global challenge faced by all with local, subnational, national, regional and international dimensions, and that it is a key component of and makes a contribution to the long-term global response to climate change to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems, taking into account the urgent and immediate needs of those developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
  2. The adaptation efforts of developing country Parties shall be recognized, in accordance with the modalities to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session.
  3. Parties recognize that the current need for adaptation is significant and that greater levels of mitigation can reduce the need for additional adaptation efforts, and that greater adaptation needs can involve greater adaptation costs.
  4. Parties acknowledge that adaptation action should follow a country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate.
  5. Parties recognize the importance of support for and international cooperation on adaptation efforts and the importance of taking into account the needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
  6. Parties should strengthen their cooperation on enhancing action on adaptation, taking into account the Cancun Adaptation Framework, including with regard to:
    1. Sharing information, good practices, experiences and lessons learned, including, as appropriate, as these relate to science, planning, policies and implementation in relation to adaptation actions;
    2. Strengthening institutional arrangements, including those under the Convention that serve this Agreement, to support the synthesis of relevant information and knowledge, and the provision of technical support and guidance to Parties;
    3. Strengthening scientific knowledge on climate, including research, systematic observation of the climate system and early warning systems, in a manner that informs climate services and supports decision-making;
    4. Assisting developing country Parties in identifying effective adaptation practices, adaptation needs, priorities, support provided and received for adaptation actions and efforts, and challenges and gaps, in a manner consistent with encouraging good practices; and
    5. Improving the effectiveness and durability of adaptation actions.
  7. United Nations specialized organizations and agencies are encouraged to support the efforts of Parties to implement the actions referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article, taking into account the provisions of paragraph 5 of this Article.
  8. Each Party shall, as appropriate, engage in adaptation planning processes and the implementation of actions, including the development or enhancement of relevant plans, policies and/or contributions, which may include:
  1. The implementation of adaptation actions, undertakings and/or efforts;
  2. The process to formulate and implement national adaptation plans;
  3. The assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability, with a view to formulating nationally determined prioritized actions, taking into account vulnerable people, places and ecosystems;
  4. Monitoring and evaluating and learning from adaptation plans, policies, programmes and actions; and
  5. Building the resilience of socioeconomic and ecological systems, including through economic diversification and sustainable management of natural resources.
  1. Each Party should, as appropriate, submit and update periodically an adaptation communication, which may include its priorities, implementation and support needs, plans and actions, without creating any additional burden for developing country Parties.
  2. The adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be, as appropriate, submitted and updated periodically, as a component of or in conjunction with other communications or documents, including a national adaptation plan, a nationally determined contribution as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 2, and/or a national communication.
  3. The adaptation communications referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
  4. Continuous and enhanced international support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of paragraphs 7, 9, 10 and 11 of this Article, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  5. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall, inter alia:
    1. Recognize adaptation efforts of developing country Parties;
    2. Enhance the implementation of adaptation action taking into account the adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article;
    3. Review the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation and support provided for adaptation; and
    4. Review the overall progress made in achieving the global goal on adaptation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

Article 8

  1. Parties recognize the importance of averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the role of sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage.
  2. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts shall be subject to the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and may be enhanced and strengthened, as determined by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  3. Parties should enhance understanding, action and support, including through the Warsaw International Mechanism, as appropriate, on a cooperative and facilitative basis with respect to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change.
  4. Accordingly, areas of cooperation and facilitation to enhance understanding, action and support may include:
    1. Early warning systems;
    2. Emergency preparedness;
    3. Slow onset events;
    4. Events that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage;
    5. Comprehensive risk assessment and management;
    6. Risk insurance facilities, climate risk pooling and other insurance solutions;
    7. Non-economic losses; and
    8. Resilience of communities, livelihoods and ecosystems.
  5. The Warsaw International Mechanism shall collaborate with existing bodies and expert groups under the Agreement, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Agreement.

Article 9

  1. Developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention.
  2. Other Parties are encouraged to provide or continue to provide such support voluntarily.
  3. As part of a global effort, developed country Parties should continue to take the lead in mobilizing climate finance from a wide variety of sources, instruments and channels, noting the significant role of public funds, through a variety of actions, including supporting country-driven strategies, and taking into account the needs and priorities of developing country Parties. Such mobilization of climate finance should represent a progression beyond previous efforts.
  4. The provision of scaled-up financial resources should aim to achieve a balance between adaptation and mitigation, taking into account country-driven strategies, and the priorities and needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and have significant capacity constraints, such as the least developed countries and small island developing States, considering the need for public and grant-based resources for adaptation.
  5. Developed country Parties shall biennially communicate indicative quantitative and qualitative information related to paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, as applicable, including, as available, projected levels of public financial resources to be provided to developing country Parties. Other Parties providing resources are encouraged to communicate biennially such information on a voluntary basis.
  6. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account the relevant information provided by developed country Parties and/or Agreement bodies on efforts related to climate finance.
  7. Developed country Parties shall provide transparent and consistent information on support for developing country Parties provided and mobilized through public interventions biennially in accordance with the modalities, procedures and guidelines to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, at its first session, as stipulated in Article 13, paragraph 13. Other Parties are encouraged to do so.
  8. The Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including its operating entities, shall serve as the financial mechanism of this Agreement.
  9. The institutions serving this Agreement, including the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, shall aim to ensure efficient access to financial resources through simplified approval procedures and enhanced readiness support for developing country Parties, in particular for the least developed countries and small island developing States, in the context of their national climate strategies and plans.

Article 10

  1. Parties share a long-term vision on the importance of fully realizing technology development and transfer in order to improve resilience to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  2. Parties, noting the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions under this Agreement and recognizing existing technology deployment and dissemination efforts, shall strengthen cooperative action on technology development and transfer.
  3. The Technology Mechanism established under the Convention shall serve this Agreement.
  4. A technology framework is hereby established to provide overarching guidance to the work of the Technology Mechanism in promoting and facilitating enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to support the implementation of this Agreement, in pursuit of the long-term vision referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.
  5. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort shall be, as appropriate, supported, including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to developing country Parties.
  6. Support, including financial support, shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, including for strengthening cooperative action on technology development and transfer at different stages of the technology cycle, with a view to achieving a balance between support for mitigation and adaptation. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account available information on efforts related to support on technology development and transfer for developing country Parties.

Article 11

  1. Capacity-building under this Agreement should enhance the capacity and ability of developing country Parties, in particular countries with the least capacity, such as the least developed countries, and those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, such as small island developing States, to take effective climate change action, including, inter alia, to implement adaptation and mitigation actions, and should facilitate technology development, dissemination and deployment, access to climate finance, relevant aspects of education, training and public awareness, and the transparent, timely and accurate communication of information.
  2. Capacity-building should be country-driven, based on and responsive to national needs, and foster country ownership of Parties, in particular, for developing country Parties, including at the national, subnational and local levels. Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting and gender-responsive.
  3. All Parties should cooperate to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement. Developed country Parties should enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing country Parties.
  4. All Parties enhancing the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement, including through regional, bilateral and multilateral approaches, shall regularly communicate on these actions or measures on capacity-building. Developing country Parties should regularly communicate progress made on implementing capacity-building plans, policies, actions or measures to implement this Agreement.
  5. Capacity-building activities shall be enhanced through appropriate institutional arrangements to support the implementation of this Agreement, including the appropriate institutional arrangements established under the Convention that serve this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, consider and adopt a decision on the initial institutional arrangements for capacity-building.

Article 12

Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement.

Article 13

  1. In order to build mutual trust and confidence and to promote effective implementation, an enhanced transparency framework for action and support, with built-in flexibility which takes into account Parties’ different capacities and builds upon collective experience is hereby established.
  2. The transparency framework shall provide flexibility in the implementation of the provisions of this Article to those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities. The modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article shall reflect such flexibility.
  3. The transparency framework shall build on and enhance the transparency arrangements under the Convention, recognizing the special circumstances of the least developed countries and small island developing States, and be implemented in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner, respectful of national sovereignty, and avoid placing undue burden on Parties.
  4. The transparency arrangements under the Convention, including national communications, biennial reports and biennial update reports, international assessment and review and international consultation and analysis, shall form part of the experience drawn upon for the development of the modalities, procedures and guidelines under paragraph 13 of this Article.
  5. The purpose of the framework for transparency of action is to provide a clear understanding of climate change action in the light of the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2, including clarity and tracking of progress towards achieving Parties’ individual nationally determined contributions under Article 4, and Parties’ adaptation actions under Article 7, including good practices, priorities, needs and gaps, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
  6. The purpose of the framework for transparency of support is to provide clarity on support provided and received by relevant individual Parties in the context of climate change actions under Articles 4, 7, 9, 10 and 11, and, to the extent possible, to provide a full overview of aggregate financial support provided, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
  7. Each Party shall regularly provide the following information:
    1. A national inventory report of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases, prepared using good practice methodologies accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement; and
    2. Information necessary to track progress made in implementing and achieving its nationally determined contribution under Article 4.
  8. Each Party should also provide information related to climate change impacts and adaptation under Article 7, as appropriate.
  9. Developed country Parties shall, and other Parties that provide support should, provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support provided to developing country Parties under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  10. Developing country Parties should provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support needed and received under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  11. Information submitted by each Party under paragraphs 7 and 9 of this Article shall undergo a technical expert review, in accordance with decision 1/CP.21. For those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities, the review process shall include assistance in identifying capacity-building needs. In addition, each Party shall participate in a facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress with respect to efforts under Article 9, and its respective implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
  12. The technical expert review under this paragraph shall consist of a consideration of the Party’s support provided, as relevant, and its implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution. The review shall also identify areas of improvement for the Party, and include a review of the consistency of the information with the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article, taking into account the flexibility accorded to the Party under paragraph 2 of this Article. The review shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of developing country Parties.
  13. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, building on experience from the arrangements related to transparency under the Convention, and elaborating on the provisions in this Article, adopt common modalities, procedures and guidelines, as appropriate, for the transparency of action and support.
  14. Support shall be provided to developing countries for the implementation of this Article.
  15. Support shall also be provided for the building of transparency-related capacity of developing country Parties on a continuous basis.

Article 14

  1. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall periodically take stock of the implementation of this Agreement to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement and its long-term goals (referred to as the “global stocktake”). It shall do so in a comprehensive and facilitative manner, considering mitigation, adaptation and the means of implementation and support, and in the light of equity and the best available science.
  2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall undertake its first global stocktake in 2023 and every five years thereafter unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  3. The outcome of the global stocktake shall inform Parties in updating and enhancing, in a nationally determined manner, their actions and support in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Agreement, as well as in enhancing international cooperation for climate action.

Article 15

  1. A mechanism to facilitate implementation of and promote compliance with the provisions of this Agreement is hereby established.
  2. The mechanism referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall consist of a committee that shall be expert-based and facilitative in nature and function in a manner that is transparent, non-adversarial and non-punitive. The committee shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.
  3. The committee shall operate under the modalities and procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session and report annually to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 16

  1. The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
  3. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, any member of the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.
  4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall keep under regular review the implementation of this Agreement and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote its effective implementation. It shall perform the functions assigned to it by this Agreement and shall:
    1. Establish such subsidiary bodies as deemed necessary for the implementation of this Agreement; and
    2. Exercise such other functions as may be required for the implementation of this Agreement.
  5. The rules of procedure of the Conference of the Parties and the financial procedures applied under the Convention shall be applied mutatis mutandis under this Agreement, except as may be otherwise decided by consensus by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  6. The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be convened by the secretariat in conjunction with the first session of the Conference of the Parties that is scheduled after the date of entry into force of this Agreement. Subsequent ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  7. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
  8. The United Nations and its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by this Agreement and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as an observer, may be so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure referred to in paragraph 5 of this Article.

Article 17

  1. The secretariat established by Article 8 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat of this Agreement.
  2. Article 8, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the functions of the secretariat, and Article 8, paragraph 3, of the Convention, on the arrangements made for the functioning of the secretariat, shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. The secretariat shall, in addition, exercise the functions assigned to it under this Agreement and by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 18

  1. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention shall serve, respectively, as the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement. The provisions of the Convention relating to the functioning of these two bodies shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the Convention.
  2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the subsidiary bodies. When the subsidiary 

bodies serve as the subsidiary bodies of this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.

3. When the subsidiary bodies established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention exercise their functions with regard to matters concerning this Agreement, any member of the bureaux of those subsidiary bodies representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 19

  1. Subsidiary bodies or other institutional arrangements established by or under the Convention, other than those referred to in this Agreement, shall serve this Agreement upon a decision of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall specify the functions to be exercised by such subsidiary bodies or arrangements.
  2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement may provide further guidance to such subsidiary bodies and institutional arrangements.

Article 20

  1. This Agreement shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the Convention. It shall be open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017. Thereafter, this Agreement shall be open for accession from the day following the date on which it is closed for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
  2. Any regional economic integration organization that becomes a Party to this Agreement without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under this Agreement. In the case of regional economic integration organizations with one or more member States that are Parties to this Agreement, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under this Agreement. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under this Agreement concurrently.
  3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by this Agreement. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.

Article 21

  1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 per cent of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
  2. Solely for the limited purpose of paragraph 1 of this Article, “total global greenhouse gas emissions” means the most up-to-date amount communicated on or before the date of adoption of this Agreement by the Parties to the Convention.
  1. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Agreement or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 of this Article for entry into force have been fulfilled, this Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
  2. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by its member States.

Article 22

The provisions of Article 15 of the Convention on the adoption of amendments to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

Article 23

  1. The provisions of Article 16 of the Convention on the adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
  2. Annexes to this Agreement shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise expressly provided for, a reference to this Agreement constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall be restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific, technical, procedural or administrative character.

Article 24

The provisions of Article 14 of the Convention on settlement of disputes shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

Article 25

  1. Each Party shall have one vote, except as provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article.
  2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Agreement. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.

Article 26

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Agreement.

Article 27

No reservations may be made to this Agreement.

Article 28

  1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Agreement has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from this Agreement by giving written notification to the Depositary.
  2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.
  3. Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from this Agreement.

                                                    Article 29

The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations.

DONE at Paris this twelfth day of December two thousand and fifteen.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Agreement.

 

Gender reference

Decides that the committee [established to facilitate implementation of an promote compliance with the provisions of the Paris Agreement]… shall consist of 12 members with recognized competence in relevant scientific, technical, socio-economic or legal fields, to be elected by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement on the basis of equitable geographical representation, with two members each from the five regional groups of the United Nations and one member each from the small island developing States and the least developed countries, while taking into account the goal of gender balance

Elaborated language

Annex

Paris Agreement

The Parties to this Agreement,

Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”,

Pursuant to the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action established by decision 1/CP.17 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention at its seventeenth session,

In pursuit of the objective of the Convention, and being guided by its principles, including the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances,

Recognizing the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge,

Also recognizing the specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, as provided for in the Convention,

Taking full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed countries with regard to funding and transfer of technology,

Recognizing that Parties may be affected not only by climate change, but also by the impacts of the measures taken in response to it,

Emphasizing the intrinsic relationship that climate change actions, responses and impacts have with equitable access to sustainable development and eradication of poverty,

Recognizing the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change,

Taking into account the imperatives of a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities,

Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity,

Recognizing the importance of the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of the greenhouse gases referred to in the Convention,

Noting the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems, including oceans, and the protection of biodiversity, recognized by some cultures as Mother Earth, and noting the importance for some of the concept of “climate justice”, when taking action to address climate change,

Affirming the importance of education, training, public awareness, public participation, public access to information and cooperation at all levels on the matters addressed in this Agreement,

Recognizing the importance of the engagements of all levels of government and various actors, in accordance with respective national legislations of Parties, in addressing climate change,

Also recognizing that sustainable lifestyles and sustainable patterns of consumption and production, with developed country Parties taking the lead, play an important role in addressing climate change,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1

      For the purpose of this Agreement, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention shall apply. In addition:

  1. “Convention” means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992;
  2. “Conference  of  the  Parties”  means  the  Conference  of  the  Parties  to  the Convention;
  3. “Party” means a Party to this Agreement.

Article 2

  1. This Agreement, in enhancing the implementation of the Convention, including its objective, aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, including by

 

  1. Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;
  2. Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production; and
  3. Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.

      2.This Agreement will be implemented to reflect equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and          respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

Article 3

As nationally determined contributions to the global response to climate change, all Parties are to undertake and communicate ambitious efforts as defined in Articles 4, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 13 with the view to achieving the purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2. The efforts of all Parties will represent a progression over time, while recognizing the need to support developing country Parties for the effective implementation of this Agreement.

Article 4

     1. In order to achieve the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2, Parties aim to reach global peaking of                         greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking will take longer for developing country                     Parties, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with best available science, so as to achieve a                 balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half           of this century, on the basis of equity, and in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty.

  1. Each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions that it intends to achieve. Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of such contributions.
  2. Each Party’s successive nationally determined contribution will represent a progression beyond the Party’s then current nationally determined contribution and reflect its highest possible ambition, reflecting its common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
  3. Developed country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their mitigation efforts, and are encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of different national circumstances.
  4. Support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, in accordance with Articles 9, 10 and 11, recognizing that enhanced support for developing country Parties will allow for higher ambition in their actions.
  5. The least developed countries and small island developing States may prepare and communicate strategies, plans and actions for low greenhouse gas emissions development reflecting their special circumstances.
  6. Mitigation co-benefits resulting from Parties’ adaptation actions and/or economic diversification plans can contribute to mitigation outcomes under this Article.
  7. In communicating their nationally determined contributions, all Parties shall provide the information necessary for clarity, transparency and understanding in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  8. Each Party shall communicate a nationally determined contribution every five years in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and be informed by the outcomes of the global stocktake referred to in Article 14.
  9. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall consider common time frames for nationally determined contributions at its first session.
  10. A Party may at any time adjust its existing nationally determined contribution with a view to enhancing its level of ambition, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  11. Nationally determined contributions communicated by Parties shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
  12. Parties shall account for their nationally determined contributions. In accounting for anthropogenic emissions and removals corresponding to their nationally determined contributions, Parties shall promote environmental integrity, transparency, accuracy, completeness, comparability and consistency, and ensure the avoidance of double counting, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  13. In the context of their nationally determined contributions, when recognizing and implementing mitigation actions with respect to anthropogenic emissions and removals, Parties should take into account, as appropriate, existing methods and guidance under the Convention, in the light of the provisions of paragraph 13 of this Article.
  14. Parties shall take into consideration in the implementation of this Agreement the concerns of Parties with economies most affected by the impacts of response measures, particularly developing country Parties.
  15. Parties, including regional economic integration organizations and their member States, that have reached an agreement to act jointly under paragraph 2 of this Article shall notify the secretariat of the terms of that agreement, including the emission level allocated to each Party within the relevant time period, when they communicate their nationally determined contributions. The secretariat shall in turn inform the Parties and signatories to the Convention of the terms of that agreement.
  16. Each party to such an agreement shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement referred to in paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
  17. If Parties acting jointly do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic integration organization which is itself a Party to this Agreement, each member State of that regional economic integration organization individually, and together with the regional economic integration organization, shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement communicated under paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
  18. All Parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies, mindful of Article 2 taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

Article 5

  1. Parties should take action to conserve and enhance, as appropriate, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the Convention, including forests.
  2. Parties are encouraged to take action to implement and support, including through results-based payments, the existing framework as set out in related guidance and decisions already agreed under the Convention for: policy approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries; and alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, while reaffirming the importance of incentivizing, as appropriate, non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches.

Article 6

  1. Parties recognize that some Parties choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions to allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions and to promote sustainable development and environmental integrity.
  2. Parties shall, where engaging on a voluntary basis in cooperative approaches that involve the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards nationally determined contributions, promote sustainable development and ensure environmental integrity and transparency, including in governance, and shall apply robust accounting to ensure, inter alia, the avoidance of double counting, consistent with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  1. The use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes to achieve nationally determined contributions under this Agreement shall be voluntary and authorized by participating Parties.
  2. A mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development is hereby established under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement for use by Parties on a voluntary basis. It shall be supervised by a body designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, and shall aim:
    1. To promote the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development;
    2. To incentivize and facilitate participation in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by public and private entities authorized by a Party;
    3. To contribute to the reduction of emission levels in the host Party, which will benefit from mitigation activities resulting in emission reductions that can also be used by another Party to fulfil its nationally determined contribution; and
    4. To deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions.
  3. Emission reductions resulting from the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall not be used to demonstrate achievement of the host Party’s nationally determined contribution if used by another Party to demonstrate achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
  4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall ensure that a share of the proceeds from activities under the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article is used to cover administrative expenses as well as to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.
  5. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall adopt rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article at its first session.
  6. Parties recognize the importance of integrated, holistic and balanced non-market approaches being available to Parties to assist in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in a coordinated and effective manner, including through, inter alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, as appropriate. These approaches shall aim to:
    1. Promote mitigation and adaptation ambition;
    2. Enhance public and private sector participation in the implementation of nationally determined contributions; and
    3. Enable opportunities for coordination across instruments and relevant institutional arrangements.
  7. A framework for non-market approaches to sustainable development is hereby defined to promote the non-market approaches referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article.

Article 7

     1. Parties hereby establish the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and                reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an                    adequate adaptation response in the context of the temperature goal referred to in Article 2.

  1. Parties recognize that adaptation is a global challenge faced by all with local, subnational, national, regional and international dimensions, and that it is a key component of and makes a contribution to the long-term global response to climate change to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems, taking into account the urgent and immediate needs of those developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
  2. The adaptation efforts of developing country Parties shall be recognized, in accordance with the modalities to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session.
  3. Parties recognize that the current need for adaptation is significant and that greater levels of mitigation can reduce the need for additional adaptation efforts, and that greater adaptation needs can involve greater adaptation costs.
  4. Parties acknowledge that adaptation action should follow a country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate.
  5. Parties recognize the importance of support for and international cooperation on adaptation efforts and the importance of taking into account the needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
  6. Parties should strengthen their cooperation on enhancing action on adaptation, taking into account the Cancun Adaptation Framework, including with regard to:
    1. Sharing information, good practices, experiences and lessons learned, including, as appropriate, as these relate to science, planning, policies and implementation in relation to adaptation actions;
    2. Strengthening institutional arrangements, including those under the Convention that serve this Agreement, to support the synthesis of relevant information and knowledge, and the provision of technical support and guidance to Parties;
    3. Strengthening scientific knowledge on climate, including research, systematic observation of the climate system and early warning systems, in a manner that informs climate services and supports decision-making;
    4. Assisting developing country Parties in identifying effective adaptation practices, adaptation needs, priorities, support provided and received for adaptation actions and efforts, and challenges and gaps, in a manner consistent with encouraging good practices; and
    5. Improving the effectiveness and durability of adaptation actions.
  7. United Nations specialized organizations and agencies are encouraged to support the efforts of Parties to implement the actions referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article, taking into account the provisions of paragraph 5 of this Article.
  8. Each Party shall, as appropriate, engage in adaptation planning processes and the implementation of actions, including the development or enhancement of relevant plans, policies and/or contributions, which may include:
  1. The implementation of adaptation actions, undertakings and/or efforts;
  2. The process to formulate and implement national adaptation plans;
  3. The assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability, with a view to formulating nationally determined prioritized actions, taking into account vulnerable people, places and ecosystems;
  4. Monitoring and evaluating and learning from adaptation plans, policies, programmes and actions; and
  5. Building the resilience of socioeconomic and ecological systems, including through economic diversification and sustainable management of natural resources.
  1. Each Party should, as appropriate, submit and update periodically an adaptation communication, which may include its priorities, implementation and support needs, plans and actions, without creating any additional burden for developing country Parties.
  2. The adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be, as appropriate, submitted and updated periodically, as a component of or in conjunction with other communications or documents, including a national adaptation plan, a nationally determined contribution as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 2, and/or a national communication.
  3. The adaptation communications referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
  4. Continuous and enhanced international support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of paragraphs 7, 9, 10 and 11 of this Article, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  5. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall, inter alia:
    1. Recognize adaptation efforts of developing country Parties;
    2. Enhance the implementation of adaptation action taking into account the adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article;
    3. Review the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation and support provided for adaptation; and
    4. Review the overall progress made in achieving the global goal on adaptation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

Article 8

  1. Parties recognize the importance of averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the role of sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage.
  2. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts shall be subject to the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and may be enhanced and strengthened, as determined by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  3. Parties should enhance understanding, action and support, including through the Warsaw International Mechanism, as appropriate, on a cooperative and facilitative basis with respect to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change.
  4. Accordingly, areas of cooperation and facilitation to enhance understanding, action and support may include:
    1. Early warning systems;
    2. Emergency preparedness;
    3. Slow onset events;
    4. Events that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage;
    5. Comprehensive risk assessment and management;
    6. Risk insurance facilities, climate risk pooling and other insurance solutions;
    7. Non-economic losses; and
    8. Resilience of communities, livelihoods and ecosystems.
  5. The Warsaw International Mechanism shall collaborate with existing bodies and expert groups under the Agreement, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Agreement.

Article 9

  1. Developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention.
  2. Other Parties are encouraged to provide or continue to provide such support voluntarily.
  3. As part of a global effort, developed country Parties should continue to take the lead in mobilizing climate finance from a wide variety of sources, instruments and channels, noting the significant role of public funds, through a variety of actions, including supporting country-driven strategies, and taking into account the needs and priorities of developing country Parties. Such mobilization of climate finance should represent a progression beyond previous efforts.
  4. The provision of scaled-up financial resources should aim to achieve a balance between adaptation and mitigation, taking into account country-driven strategies, and the priorities and needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and have significant capacity constraints, such as the least developed countries and small island developing States, considering the need for public and grant-based resources for adaptation.
  5. Developed country Parties shall biennially communicate indicative quantitative and qualitative information related to paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, as applicable, including, as available, projected levels of public financial resources to be provided to developing country Parties. Other Parties providing resources are encouraged to communicate biennially such information on a voluntary basis.
  6. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account the relevant information provided by developed country Parties and/or Agreement bodies on efforts related to climate finance.
  7. Developed country Parties shall provide transparent and consistent information on support for developing country Parties provided and mobilized through public interventions biennially in accordance with the modalities, procedures and guidelines to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, at its first session, as stipulated in Article 13, paragraph 13. Other Parties are encouraged to do so.
  8. The Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including its operating entities, shall serve as the financial mechanism of this Agreement.
  9. The institutions serving this Agreement, including the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, shall aim to ensure efficient access to financial resources through simplified approval procedures and enhanced readiness support for developing country Parties, in particular for the least developed countries and small island developing States, in the context of their national climate strategies and plans.

Article 10

  1. Parties share a long-term vision on the importance of fully realizing technology development and transfer in order to improve resilience to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  2. Parties, noting the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions under this Agreement and recognizing existing technology deployment and dissemination efforts, shall strengthen cooperative action on technology development and transfer.
  3. The Technology Mechanism established under the Convention shall serve this Agreement.
  4. A technology framework is hereby established to provide overarching guidance to the work of the Technology Mechanism in promoting and facilitating enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to support the implementation of this Agreement, in pursuit of the long-term vision referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.
  5. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort shall be, as appropriate, supported, including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to developing country Parties.
  6. Support, including financial support, shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, including for strengthening cooperative action on technology development and transfer at different stages of the technology cycle, with a view to achieving a balance between support for mitigation and adaptation. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account available information on efforts related to support on technology development and transfer for developing country Parties.

Article 11

  1. Capacity-building under this Agreement should enhance the capacity and ability of developing country Parties, in particular countries with the least capacity, such as the least developed countries, and those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, such as small island developing States, to take effective climate change action, including, inter alia, to implement adaptation and mitigation actions, and should facilitate technology development, dissemination and deployment, access to climate finance, relevant aspects of education, training and public awareness, and the transparent, timely and accurate communication of information.
  2. Capacity-building should be country-driven, based on and responsive to national needs, and foster country ownership of Parties, in particular, for developing country Parties, including at the national, subnational and local levels. Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting and gender-responsive.
  3. All Parties should cooperate to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement. Developed country Parties should enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing country Parties.
  4. All Parties enhancing the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement, including through regional, bilateral and multilateral approaches, shall regularly communicate on these actions or measures on capacity-building. Developing country Parties should regularly communicate progress made on implementing capacity-building plans, policies, actions or measures to implement this Agreement.
  5. Capacity-building activities shall be enhanced through appropriate institutional arrangements to support the implementation of this Agreement, including the appropriate institutional arrangements established under the Convention that serve this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, consider and adopt a decision on the initial institutional arrangements for capacity-building.

Article 12

Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement.

Article 13

  1. In order to build mutual trust and confidence and to promote effective implementation, an enhanced transparency framework for action and support, with built-in flexibility which takes into account Parties’ different capacities and builds upon collective experience is hereby established.
  2. The transparency framework shall provide flexibility in the implementation of the provisions of this Article to those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities. The modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article shall reflect such flexibility.
  3. The transparency framework shall build on and enhance the transparency arrangements under the Convention, recognizing the special circumstances of the least developed countries and small island developing States, and be implemented in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner, respectful of national sovereignty, and avoid placing undue burden on Parties.
  4. The transparency arrangements under the Convention, including national communications, biennial reports and biennial update reports, international assessment and review and international consultation and analysis, shall form part of the experience drawn upon for the development of the modalities, procedures and guidelines under paragraph 13 of this Article.
  5. The purpose of the framework for transparency of action is to provide a clear understanding of climate change action in the light of the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2, including clarity and tracking of progress towards achieving Parties’ individual nationally determined contributions under Article 4, and Parties’ adaptation actions under Article 7, including good practices, priorities, needs and gaps, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
  6. The purpose of the framework for transparency of support is to provide clarity on support provided and received by relevant individual Parties in the context of climate change actions under Articles 4, 7, 9, 10 and 11, and, to the extent possible, to provide a full overview of aggregate financial support provided, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
  7. Each Party shall regularly provide the following information:
    1. A national inventory report of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases, prepared using good practice methodologies accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement; and
    2. Information necessary to track progress made in implementing and achieving its nationally determined contribution under Article 4.
  8. Each Party should also provide information related to climate change impacts and adaptation under Article 7, as appropriate.
  9. Developed country Parties shall, and other Parties that provide support should, provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support provided to developing country Parties under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  10. Developing country Parties should provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support needed and received under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  11. Information submitted by each Party under paragraphs 7 and 9 of this Article shall undergo a technical expert review, in accordance with decision 1/CP.21. For those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities, the review process shall include assistance in identifying capacity-building needs. In addition, each Party shall participate in a facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress with respect to efforts under Article 9, and its respective implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
  12. The technical expert review under this paragraph shall consist of a consideration of the Party’s support provided, as relevant, and its implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution. The review shall also identify areas of improvement for the Party, and include a review of the consistency of the information with the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article, taking into account the flexibility accorded to the Party under paragraph 2 of this Article. The review shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of developing country Parties.
  13. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, building on experience from the arrangements related to transparency under the Convention, and elaborating on the provisions in this Article, adopt common modalities, procedures and guidelines, as appropriate, for the transparency of action and support.
  14. Support shall be provided to developing countries for the implementation of this Article.
  15. Support shall also be provided for the building of transparency-related capacity of developing country Parties on a continuous basis.

Article 14

  1. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall periodically take stock of the implementation of this Agreement to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement and its long-term goals (referred to as the “global stocktake”). It shall do so in a comprehensive and facilitative manner, considering mitigation, adaptation and the means of implementation and support, and in the light of equity and the best available science.
  2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall undertake its first global stocktake in 2023 and every five years thereafter unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  3. The outcome of the global stocktake shall inform Parties in updating and enhancing, in a nationally determined manner, their actions and support in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Agreement, as well as in enhancing international cooperation for climate action.

Article 15

  1. A mechanism to facilitate implementation of and promote compliance with the provisions of this Agreement is hereby established.
  2. The mechanism referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall consist of a committee that shall be expert-based and facilitative in nature and function in a manner that is transparent, non-adversarial and non-punitive. The committee shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.
  3. The committee shall operate under the modalities and procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session and report annually to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 16

  1. The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
  3. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, any member of the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.
  4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall keep under regular review the implementation of this Agreement and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote its effective implementation. It shall perform the functions assigned to it by this Agreement and shall:
    1. Establish such subsidiary bodies as deemed necessary for the implementation of this Agreement; and
    2. Exercise such other functions as may be required for the implementation of this Agreement.
  5. The rules of procedure of the Conference of the Parties and the financial procedures applied under the Convention shall be applied mutatis mutandis under this Agreement, except as may be otherwise decided by consensus by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  6. The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be convened by the secretariat in conjunction with the first session of the Conference of the Parties that is scheduled after the date of entry into force of this Agreement. Subsequent ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  7. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
  8. The United Nations and its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by this Agreement and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as an observer, may be so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure referred to in paragraph 5 of this Article.

Article 17

  1. The secretariat established by Article 8 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat of this Agreement.
  2. Article 8, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the functions of the secretariat, and Article 8, paragraph 3, of the Convention, on the arrangements made for the functioning of the secretariat, shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. The secretariat shall, in addition, exercise the functions assigned to it under this Agreement and by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 18

  1. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention shall serve, respectively, as the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement. The provisions of the Convention relating to the functioning of these two bodies shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the Convention.
  2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the subsidiary bodies. When the subsidiary 

bodies serve as the subsidiary bodies of this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.

3. When the subsidiary bodies established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention exercise their functions with regard to matters concerning this Agreement, any member of the bureaux of those subsidiary bodies representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 19

  1. Subsidiary bodies or other institutional arrangements established by or under the Convention, other than those referred to in this Agreement, shall serve this Agreement upon a decision of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall specify the functions to be exercised by such subsidiary bodies or arrangements.
  2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement may provide further guidance to such subsidiary bodies and institutional arrangements.

Article 20

  1. This Agreement shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the Convention. It shall be open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017. Thereafter, this Agreement shall be open for accession from the day following the date on which it is closed for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
  2. Any regional economic integration organization that becomes a Party to this Agreement without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under this Agreement. In the case of regional economic integration organizations with one or more member States that are Parties to this Agreement, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under this Agreement. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under this Agreement concurrently.
  3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by this Agreement. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.

Article 21

  1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 per cent of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
  2. Solely for the limited purpose of paragraph 1 of this Article, “total global greenhouse gas emissions” means the most up-to-date amount communicated on or before the date of adoption of this Agreement by the Parties to the Convention.
  1. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Agreement or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 of this Article for entry into force have been fulfilled, this Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
  2. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by its member States.

Article 22

The provisions of Article 15 of the Convention on the adoption of amendments to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

Article 23

  1. The provisions of Article 16 of the Convention on the adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
  2. Annexes to this Agreement shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise expressly provided for, a reference to this Agreement constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall be restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific, technical, procedural or administrative character.

Article 24

The provisions of Article 14 of the Convention on settlement of disputes shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

Article 25

  1. Each Party shall have one vote, except as provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article.
  2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Agreement. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.

Article 26

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Agreement.

Article 27

No reservations may be made to this Agreement.

Article 28

  1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Agreement has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from this Agreement by giving written notification to the Depositary.
  2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.
  3. Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from this Agreement.

                                                    Article 29

The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations.

DONE at Paris this twelfth day of December two thousand and fifteen.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Agreement.

 

Gender reference

Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting and gender-responsive.

Elaborated language

Annex

Paris Agreement

The Parties to this Agreement,

Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”,

Pursuant to the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action established by decision 1/CP.17 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention at its seventeenth session,

In pursuit of the objective of the Convention, and being guided by its principles, including the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances,

Recognizing the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge,

Also recognizing the specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, as provided for in the Convention,

Taking full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed countries with regard to funding and transfer of technology,

Recognizing that Parties may be affected not only by climate change, but also by the impacts of the measures taken in response to it,

Emphasizing the intrinsic relationship that climate change actions, responses and impacts have with equitable access to sustainable development and eradication of poverty,

Recognizing the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change,

Taking into account the imperatives of a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities,

Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity,

Recognizing the importance of the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of the greenhouse gases referred to in the Convention,

Noting the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems, including oceans, and the protection of biodiversity, recognized by some cultures as Mother Earth, and noting the importance for some of the concept of “climate justice”, when taking action to address climate change,

Affirming the importance of education, training, public awareness, public participation, public access to information and cooperation at all levels on the matters addressed in this Agreement,

Recognizing the importance of the engagements of all levels of government and various actors, in accordance with respective national legislations of Parties, in addressing climate change,

Also recognizing that sustainable lifestyles and sustainable patterns of consumption and production, with developed country Parties taking the lead, play an important role in addressing climate change,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1

      For the purpose of this Agreement, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention shall apply. In addition:

  1. “Convention” means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992;
  2. “Conference  of  the  Parties”  means  the  Conference  of  the  Parties  to  the Convention;
  3. “Party” means a Party to this Agreement.

Article 2

  1. This Agreement, in enhancing the implementation of the Convention, including its objective, aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, including by

 

  1. Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;
  2. Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production; and
  3. Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.

      2.This Agreement will be implemented to reflect equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and          respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

Article 3

As nationally determined contributions to the global response to climate change, all Parties are to undertake and communicate ambitious efforts as defined in Articles 4, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 13 with the view to achieving the purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2. The efforts of all Parties will represent a progression over time, while recognizing the need to support developing country Parties for the effective implementation of this Agreement.

Article 4

     1. In order to achieve the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2, Parties aim to reach global peaking of                         greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking will take longer for developing country                     Parties, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with best available science, so as to achieve a                 balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half           of this century, on the basis of equity, and in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty.

  1. Each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions that it intends to achieve. Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of such contributions.
  2. Each Party’s successive nationally determined contribution will represent a progression beyond the Party’s then current nationally determined contribution and reflect its highest possible ambition, reflecting its common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
  3. Developed country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their mitigation efforts, and are encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of different national circumstances.
  4. Support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, in accordance with Articles 9, 10 and 11, recognizing that enhanced support for developing country Parties will allow for higher ambition in their actions.
  5. The least developed countries and small island developing States may prepare and communicate strategies, plans and actions for low greenhouse gas emissions development reflecting their special circumstances.
  6. Mitigation co-benefits resulting from Parties’ adaptation actions and/or economic diversification plans can contribute to mitigation outcomes under this Article.
  7. In communicating their nationally determined contributions, all Parties shall provide the information necessary for clarity, transparency and understanding in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  8. Each Party shall communicate a nationally determined contribution every five years in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and be informed by the outcomes of the global stocktake referred to in Article 14.
  9. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall consider common time frames for nationally determined contributions at its first session.
  10. A Party may at any time adjust its existing nationally determined contribution with a view to enhancing its level of ambition, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  11. Nationally determined contributions communicated by Parties shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
  12. Parties shall account for their nationally determined contributions. In accounting for anthropogenic emissions and removals corresponding to their nationally determined contributions, Parties shall promote environmental integrity, transparency, accuracy, completeness, comparability and consistency, and ensure the avoidance of double counting, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  13. In the context of their nationally determined contributions, when recognizing and implementing mitigation actions with respect to anthropogenic emissions and removals, Parties should take into account, as appropriate, existing methods and guidance under the Convention, in the light of the provisions of paragraph 13 of this Article.
  14. Parties shall take into consideration in the implementation of this Agreement the concerns of Parties with economies most affected by the impacts of response measures, particularly developing country Parties.
  15. Parties, including regional economic integration organizations and their member States, that have reached an agreement to act jointly under paragraph 2 of this Article shall notify the secretariat of the terms of that agreement, including the emission level allocated to each Party within the relevant time period, when they communicate their nationally determined contributions. The secretariat shall in turn inform the Parties and signatories to the Convention of the terms of that agreement.
  16. Each party to such an agreement shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement referred to in paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
  17. If Parties acting jointly do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic integration organization which is itself a Party to this Agreement, each member State of that regional economic integration organization individually, and together with the regional economic integration organization, shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement communicated under paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
  18. All Parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies, mindful of Article 2 taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

Article 5

  1. Parties should take action to conserve and enhance, as appropriate, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the Convention, including forests.
  2. Parties are encouraged to take action to implement and support, including through results-based payments, the existing framework as set out in related guidance and decisions already agreed under the Convention for: policy approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries; and alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, while reaffirming the importance of incentivizing, as appropriate, non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches.

Article 6

  1. Parties recognize that some Parties choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions to allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions and to promote sustainable development and environmental integrity.
  2. Parties shall, where engaging on a voluntary basis in cooperative approaches that involve the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards nationally determined contributions, promote sustainable development and ensure environmental integrity and transparency, including in governance, and shall apply robust accounting to ensure, inter alia, the avoidance of double counting, consistent with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  1. The use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes to achieve nationally determined contributions under this Agreement shall be voluntary and authorized by participating Parties.
  2. A mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development is hereby established under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement for use by Parties on a voluntary basis. It shall be supervised by a body designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, and shall aim:
    1. To promote the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development;
    2. To incentivize and facilitate participation in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by public and private entities authorized by a Party;
    3. To contribute to the reduction of emission levels in the host Party, which will benefit from mitigation activities resulting in emission reductions that can also be used by another Party to fulfil its nationally determined contribution; and
    4. To deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions.
  3. Emission reductions resulting from the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall not be used to demonstrate achievement of the host Party’s nationally determined contribution if used by another Party to demonstrate achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
  4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall ensure that a share of the proceeds from activities under the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article is used to cover administrative expenses as well as to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.
  5. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall adopt rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article at its first session.
  6. Parties recognize the importance of integrated, holistic and balanced non-market approaches being available to Parties to assist in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in a coordinated and effective manner, including through, inter alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, as appropriate. These approaches shall aim to:
    1. Promote mitigation and adaptation ambition;
    2. Enhance public and private sector participation in the implementation of nationally determined contributions; and
    3. Enable opportunities for coordination across instruments and relevant institutional arrangements.
  7. A framework for non-market approaches to sustainable development is hereby defined to promote the non-market approaches referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article.

Article 7

     1. Parties hereby establish the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and                reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an                    adequate adaptation response in the context of the temperature goal referred to in Article 2.

  1. Parties recognize that adaptation is a global challenge faced by all with local, subnational, national, regional and international dimensions, and that it is a key component of and makes a contribution to the long-term global response to climate change to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems, taking into account the urgent and immediate needs of those developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
  2. The adaptation efforts of developing country Parties shall be recognized, in accordance with the modalities to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session.
  3. Parties recognize that the current need for adaptation is significant and that greater levels of mitigation can reduce the need for additional adaptation efforts, and that greater adaptation needs can involve greater adaptation costs.
  4. Parties acknowledge that adaptation action should follow a country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate.
  5. Parties recognize the importance of support for and international cooperation on adaptation efforts and the importance of taking into account the needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
  6. Parties should strengthen their cooperation on enhancing action on adaptation, taking into account the Cancun Adaptation Framework, including with regard to:
    1. Sharing information, good practices, experiences and lessons learned, including, as appropriate, as these relate to science, planning, policies and implementation in relation to adaptation actions;
    2. Strengthening institutional arrangements, including those under the Convention that serve this Agreement, to support the synthesis of relevant information and knowledge, and the provision of technical support and guidance to Parties;
    3. Strengthening scientific knowledge on climate, including research, systematic observation of the climate system and early warning systems, in a manner that informs climate services and supports decision-making;
    4. Assisting developing country Parties in identifying effective adaptation practices, adaptation needs, priorities, support provided and received for adaptation actions and efforts, and challenges and gaps, in a manner consistent with encouraging good practices; and
    5. Improving the effectiveness and durability of adaptation actions.
  7. United Nations specialized organizations and agencies are encouraged to support the efforts of Parties to implement the actions referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article, taking into account the provisions of paragraph 5 of this Article.
  8. Each Party shall, as appropriate, engage in adaptation planning processes and the implementation of actions, including the development or enhancement of relevant plans, policies and/or contributions, which may include:
  1. The implementation of adaptation actions, undertakings and/or efforts;
  2. The process to formulate and implement national adaptation plans;
  3. The assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability, with a view to formulating nationally determined prioritized actions, taking into account vulnerable people, places and ecosystems;
  4. Monitoring and evaluating and learning from adaptation plans, policies, programmes and actions; and
  5. Building the resilience of socioeconomic and ecological systems, including through economic diversification and sustainable management of natural resources.
  1. Each Party should, as appropriate, submit and update periodically an adaptation communication, which may include its priorities, implementation and support needs, plans and actions, without creating any additional burden for developing country Parties.
  2. The adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be, as appropriate, submitted and updated periodically, as a component of or in conjunction with other communications or documents, including a national adaptation plan, a nationally determined contribution as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 2, and/or a national communication.
  3. The adaptation communications referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
  4. Continuous and enhanced international support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of paragraphs 7, 9, 10 and 11 of this Article, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  5. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall, inter alia:
    1. Recognize adaptation efforts of developing country Parties;
    2. Enhance the implementation of adaptation action taking into account the adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article;
    3. Review the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation and support provided for adaptation; and
    4. Review the overall progress made in achieving the global goal on adaptation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

Article 8

  1. Parties recognize the importance of averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the role of sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage.
  2. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts shall be subject to the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and may be enhanced and strengthened, as determined by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  3. Parties should enhance understanding, action and support, including through the Warsaw International Mechanism, as appropriate, on a cooperative and facilitative basis with respect to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change.
  4. Accordingly, areas of cooperation and facilitation to enhance understanding, action and support may include:
    1. Early warning systems;
    2. Emergency preparedness;
    3. Slow onset events;
    4. Events that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage;
    5. Comprehensive risk assessment and management;
    6. Risk insurance facilities, climate risk pooling and other insurance solutions;
    7. Non-economic losses; and
    8. Resilience of communities, livelihoods and ecosystems.
  5. The Warsaw International Mechanism shall collaborate with existing bodies and expert groups under the Agreement, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Agreement.

Article 9

  1. Developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention.
  2. Other Parties are encouraged to provide or continue to provide such support voluntarily.
  3. As part of a global effort, developed country Parties should continue to take the lead in mobilizing climate finance from a wide variety of sources, instruments and channels, noting the significant role of public funds, through a variety of actions, including supporting country-driven strategies, and taking into account the needs and priorities of developing country Parties. Such mobilization of climate finance should represent a progression beyond previous efforts.
  4. The provision of scaled-up financial resources should aim to achieve a balance between adaptation and mitigation, taking into account country-driven strategies, and the priorities and needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and have significant capacity constraints, such as the least developed countries and small island developing States, considering the need for public and grant-based resources for adaptation.
  5. Developed country Parties shall biennially communicate indicative quantitative and qualitative information related to paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, as applicable, including, as available, projected levels of public financial resources to be provided to developing country Parties. Other Parties providing resources are encouraged to communicate biennially such information on a voluntary basis.
  6. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account the relevant information provided by developed country Parties and/or Agreement bodies on efforts related to climate finance.
  7. Developed country Parties shall provide transparent and consistent information on support for developing country Parties provided and mobilized through public interventions biennially in accordance with the modalities, procedures and guidelines to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, at its first session, as stipulated in Article 13, paragraph 13. Other Parties are encouraged to do so.
  8. The Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including its operating entities, shall serve as the financial mechanism of this Agreement.
  9. The institutions serving this Agreement, including the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, shall aim to ensure efficient access to financial resources through simplified approval procedures and enhanced readiness support for developing country Parties, in particular for the least developed countries and small island developing States, in the context of their national climate strategies and plans.

Article 10

  1. Parties share a long-term vision on the importance of fully realizing technology development and transfer in order to improve resilience to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  2. Parties, noting the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions under this Agreement and recognizing existing technology deployment and dissemination efforts, shall strengthen cooperative action on technology development and transfer.
  3. The Technology Mechanism established under the Convention shall serve this Agreement.
  4. A technology framework is hereby established to provide overarching guidance to the work of the Technology Mechanism in promoting and facilitating enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to support the implementation of this Agreement, in pursuit of the long-term vision referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.
  5. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort shall be, as appropriate, supported, including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to developing country Parties.
  6. Support, including financial support, shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, including for strengthening cooperative action on technology development and transfer at different stages of the technology cycle, with a view to achieving a balance between support for mitigation and adaptation. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account available information on efforts related to support on technology development and transfer for developing country Parties.

Article 11

  1. Capacity-building under this Agreement should enhance the capacity and ability of developing country Parties, in particular countries with the least capacity, such as the least developed countries, and those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, such as small island developing States, to take effective climate change action, including, inter alia, to implement adaptation and mitigation actions, and should facilitate technology development, dissemination and deployment, access to climate finance, relevant aspects of education, training and public awareness, and the transparent, timely and accurate communication of information.
  2. Capacity-building should be country-driven, based on and responsive to national needs, and foster country ownership of Parties, in particular, for developing country Parties, including at the national, subnational and local levels. Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting and gender-responsive.
  3. All Parties should cooperate to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement. Developed country Parties should enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing country Parties.
  4. All Parties enhancing the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement, including through regional, bilateral and multilateral approaches, shall regularly communicate on these actions or measures on capacity-building. Developing country Parties should regularly communicate progress made on implementing capacity-building plans, policies, actions or measures to implement this Agreement.
  5. Capacity-building activities shall be enhanced through appropriate institutional arrangements to support the implementation of this Agreement, including the appropriate institutional arrangements established under the Convention that serve this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, consider and adopt a decision on the initial institutional arrangements for capacity-building.

Article 12

Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement.

Article 13

  1. In order to build mutual trust and confidence and to promote effective implementation, an enhanced transparency framework for action and support, with built-in flexibility which takes into account Parties’ different capacities and builds upon collective experience is hereby established.
  2. The transparency framework shall provide flexibility in the implementation of the provisions of this Article to those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities. The modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article shall reflect such flexibility.
  3. The transparency framework shall build on and enhance the transparency arrangements under the Convention, recognizing the special circumstances of the least developed countries and small island developing States, and be implemented in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner, respectful of national sovereignty, and avoid placing undue burden on Parties.
  4. The transparency arrangements under the Convention, including national communications, biennial reports and biennial update reports, international assessment and review and international consultation and analysis, shall form part of the experience drawn upon for the development of the modalities, procedures and guidelines under paragraph 13 of this Article.
  5. The purpose of the framework for transparency of action is to provide a clear understanding of climate change action in the light of the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2, including clarity and tracking of progress towards achieving Parties’ individual nationally determined contributions under Article 4, and Parties’ adaptation actions under Article 7, including good practices, priorities, needs and gaps, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
  6. The purpose of the framework for transparency of support is to provide clarity on support provided and received by relevant individual Parties in the context of climate change actions under Articles 4, 7, 9, 10 and 11, and, to the extent possible, to provide a full overview of aggregate financial support provided, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
  7. Each Party shall regularly provide the following information:
    1. A national inventory report of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases, prepared using good practice methodologies accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement; and
    2. Information necessary to track progress made in implementing and achieving its nationally determined contribution under Article 4.
  8. Each Party should also provide information related to climate change impacts and adaptation under Article 7, as appropriate.
  9. Developed country Parties shall, and other Parties that provide support should, provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support provided to developing country Parties under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  10. Developing country Parties should provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support needed and received under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
  11. Information submitted by each Party under paragraphs 7 and 9 of this Article shall undergo a technical expert review, in accordance with decision 1/CP.21. For those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities, the review process shall include assistance in identifying capacity-building needs. In addition, each Party shall participate in a facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress with respect to efforts under Article 9, and its respective implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
  12. The technical expert review under this paragraph shall consist of a consideration of the Party’s support provided, as relevant, and its implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution. The review shall also identify areas of improvement for the Party, and include a review of the consistency of the information with the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article, taking into account the flexibility accorded to the Party under paragraph 2 of this Article. The review shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of developing country Parties.
  13. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, building on experience from the arrangements related to transparency under the Convention, and elaborating on the provisions in this Article, adopt common modalities, procedures and guidelines, as appropriate, for the transparency of action and support.
  14. Support shall be provided to developing countries for the implementation of this Article.
  15. Support shall also be provided for the building of transparency-related capacity of developing country Parties on a continuous basis.

Article 14

  1. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall periodically take stock of the implementation of this Agreement to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement and its long-term goals (referred to as the “global stocktake”). It shall do so in a comprehensive and facilitative manner, considering mitigation, adaptation and the means of implementation and support, and in the light of equity and the best available science.
  2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall undertake its first global stocktake in 2023 and every five years thereafter unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  3. The outcome of the global stocktake shall inform Parties in updating and enhancing, in a nationally determined manner, their actions and support in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Agreement, as well as in enhancing international cooperation for climate action.

Article 15

  1. A mechanism to facilitate implementation of and promote compliance with the provisions of this Agreement is hereby established.
  2. The mechanism referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall consist of a committee that shall be expert-based and facilitative in nature and function in a manner that is transparent, non-adversarial and non-punitive. The committee shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.
  3. The committee shall operate under the modalities and procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session and report annually to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 16

  1. The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
  3. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, any member of the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.
  4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall keep under regular review the implementation of this Agreement and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote its effective implementation. It shall perform the functions assigned to it by this Agreement and shall:
    1. Establish such subsidiary bodies as deemed necessary for the implementation of this Agreement; and
    2. Exercise such other functions as may be required for the implementation of this Agreement.
  5. The rules of procedure of the Conference of the Parties and the financial procedures applied under the Convention shall be applied mutatis mutandis under this Agreement, except as may be otherwise decided by consensus by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  6. The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be convened by the secretariat in conjunction with the first session of the Conference of the Parties that is scheduled after the date of entry into force of this Agreement. Subsequent ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  7. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
  8. The United Nations and its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by this Agreement and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as an observer, may be so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure referred to in paragraph 5 of this Article.

Article 17

  1. The secretariat established by Article 8 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat of this Agreement.
  2. Article 8, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the functions of the secretariat, and Article 8, paragraph 3, of the Convention, on the arrangements made for the functioning of the secretariat, shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. The secretariat shall, in addition, exercise the functions assigned to it under this Agreement and by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 18

  1. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention shall serve, respectively, as the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement. The provisions of the Convention relating to the functioning of these two bodies shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the Convention.
  2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the subsidiary bodies. When the subsidiary 

bodies serve as the subsidiary bodies of this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.

3. When the subsidiary bodies established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention exercise their functions with regard to matters concerning this Agreement, any member of the bureaux of those subsidiary bodies representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 19

  1. Subsidiary bodies or other institutional arrangements established by or under the Convention, other than those referred to in this Agreement, shall serve this Agreement upon a decision of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall specify the functions to be exercised by such subsidiary bodies or arrangements.
  2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement may provide further guidance to such subsidiary bodies and institutional arrangements.

Article 20

  1. This Agreement shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the Convention. It shall be open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017. Thereafter, this Agreement shall be open for accession from the day following the date on which it is closed for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
  2. Any regional economic integration organization that becomes a Party to this Agreement without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under this Agreement. In the case of regional economic integration organizations with one or more member States that are Parties to this Agreement, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under this Agreement. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under this Agreement concurrently.
  3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by this Agreement. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.

Article 21

  1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 per cent of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
  2. Solely for the limited purpose of paragraph 1 of this Article, “total global greenhouse gas emissions” means the most up-to-date amount communicated on or before the date of adoption of this Agreement by the Parties to the Convention.
  1. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Agreement or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 of this Article for entry into force have been fulfilled, this Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
  2. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by its member States.

Article 22

The provisions of Article 15 of the Convention on the adoption of amendments to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

Article 23

  1. The provisions of Article 16 of the Convention on the adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
  2. Annexes to this Agreement shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise expressly provided for, a reference to this Agreement constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall be restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific, technical, procedural or administrative character.

Article 24

The provisions of Article 14 of the Convention on settlement of disputes shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

Article 25

  1. Each Party shall have one vote, except as provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article.
  2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Agreement. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.

Article 26

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Agreement.

Article 27

No reservations may be made to this Agreement.

Article 28

  1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Agreement has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from this Agreement by giving written notification to the Depositary.
  2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.
  3. Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from this Agreement.

                                                    Article 29

The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations.

DONE at Paris this twelfth day of December two thousand and fifteen.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Agreement.

 

Gender reference

Recalled decision 12/CP.17, which agrees that safeguards should respect gender considerations. It encourages entities, when providing results-based finance, to apply the methodological guidance consistent with decision 12/CP.17. It requests the Green Climate Fund, when providing results-based finance, to apply the methodological guidance consistent with decision 12/CP.17 and it decides to establish an information hub on the web platform on the UNFCCC website, which will contain the summary of information on how all of the safeguards referred to in decision 1/CP.16, appendix I, are being addressed and respected, as referred to in decisions and 12/CP.17, chapter I.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 2/CP.13, 4/CP.15, 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17, 12/CP.17, 1/CP.18 and 10/CP.19 to 15/CP.19,

Reaffirming that, in the context of the provision of adequate and predictable support to developing country Parties, Parties should collectively aim to slow, halt and reverse forest cover and carbon loss, in accordance with national circumstances, consistent with the ultimate objective of the Convention, as stated in its Article 2,

Recognizing the importance and necessity of adequate and predictable financial and technology support for developing all of the elements referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71,

Also recognizing the need to scale up and improve the effectiveness of finance for the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, taking into account decision 2/CP.17, paragraphs 66 and 67,

Further recognizing the key role that the Green Climate Fund will play in channelling financial resources to developing countries and catalysing climate finance,

  1. Reaffirms that results-based finance provided to developing country Parties for the full implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, that is new, additional and predictable may come from a variety of sources, public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources, as referred to in decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 65;
  2. Also reaffirms that the progression of developing country Parties towards results-based actions occurs in the context of the provision of adequate and predictable support for all phases of the actions and activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraphs 70 and 73;
  3. Recalls that for developing country Parties undertaking the results-based actions referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 73, to obtain and receive results-based finance, those actions should be fully measured, reported and verified, in accordance with decisions 13/CP.19 and 14/CP.19, and developing country Parties should have all of the elements referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71, in place, in accordance with decisions 12/CP.17 and 11/CP.19;
  4. Agrees that developing countries seeking to obtain and receive results-based payments in accordance with decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 64, should provide the most recent summary of information on how all of the safeguards referred to in decision 1/CP.16, appendix I, paragraph 2, have been addressed and respected before they can receive results-based payments;
  5. Encourages entities financing the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, through the wide variety of sources referred to in decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 65, including the Green Climate Fund in a key role, to collectively channel adequate and predictable results-based finance in a fair and balanced manner, taking into account different policy approaches, while working with a view to increasing the number of countries that are in a position to obtain and receive payments for results-based actions;
  6. Also encourages the entities referred to in paragraph 5 above, when providing results-based finance, to apply the methodological guidance consistent with decisions 4/CP.15, 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17, 12/CP.17 and 11/CP.19 to 15/CP.19, as well as this decision, in order to improve the effectiveness and coordination of results-based finance;
  7. Requests the Green Climate Fund, when providing results-based finance, to apply the methodological guidance consistent with decisions 4/CP.15, 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17, 12/CP.17 and 11/CP.19 to 15/CP.19, as well as this decision, in order to improve the effectiveness and coordination of results-based finance;
  8. Encourages entities financing the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, through the wide variety of sources referred to in decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 65, to continue to provide financial resources to alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests;
  9. Decides to establish an information hub on the web platform on the UNFCCC website as a means to publish information on the results of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, and corresponding results-based payments;
  10. Notes that the information hub aims to increase transparency of information on results-based actions, on the corresponding payments, as well as information related to the elements referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71, without creating additional requirements for developing country Parties;
  11. Decides that the information hub will contain, as reported through the appropriate channels under the Convention:
  • (a) The results for each relevant period expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year and a link to the technical report referred to in decision 14/CP.19, paragraph 14;
  • (b) The assessed forest reference emission level(s) and/or forest reference level(s) expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year and a link to the final report of the technical assessment team referred to in decision 13/CP.19, paragraph 18;
  • (c) The summary of information on how all of the safeguards referred to in decision 1/CP.16, appendix I, are being addressed and respected, as referred to in decisions 12/CP.19 and 12/CP.17, chapter I;
  • (d) A link to the national strategy or action plan as referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71(a), as appropriate;
  • (e) Information on the national forest monitoring system, as provided in the technical annex referred to in decision 14/CP.19

     12. Also decides that the information hub will also contain information on each of the results referred to in paragraph 11 above, including the quantity of results for            which payments were received, expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year, and the entity paying for results;

  1. Agrees that the information on results-based payments is to be inserted on the information hub in consultation with the developing country Party concerned, taking into full account decision 10/CP.19, paragraph 2;
  2. Requests the secretariat to insert the information referred to in paragraph 11(a–e) above on the information hub once all of the information is available through the appropriate channels under the Convention, and to also insert the information referred to in paragraph 12 above;
  3. Also requests the secretariat to organize, subject to the availability of supplementary resources, an expert meeting on the matters referred to in paragraphs 11–13 above as well as on a format for the insertion of the information referred to in paragraph 12 above before the forty-first session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (December 2014), and to prepare a report on that expert meeting for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its forty-first session;
  4. Notes that the insertion of results on the information hub does not create any rights or obligations for any Party or other entity;
  5. Also notes that the information on results included on the information hub should be linked to the same results reflected on any other relevant future system that may be developed under the Convention;
  6. Further notes that nothing under this decision and its implementation prejudges any future decision with regard to the eligibility or non-eligibility of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, to the mechanism defined in decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 83, or to the outcome of the work programme referred to in decision 1/CP.18, paragraph 44;
  7. Requests the secretariat to improve and further develop the web platform on the UNFCCC website to include the information referred to in paragraphs 11 and 12 above, and to make the information available in a simple, transparent and easily accessible manner;
  8. Also requests the Standing Committee on Finance, noting the urgencies of these issues, and the request to the Standing Committee on Finance to consider, in its work on coherence and coordination, inter alia, the issue of financing for forests, taking into account different policy approaches, to focus its soonest possible forum on issues related to finance for forests, including the implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, inter alia:
  • (a) Ways and means to transfer payments for results-based actions as referred to in decision 1/CP.18, paragraph 29;
  • (b) The provision of financial resources for alternative approaches;
  1. Further requests the Standing Committee on Finance to invite experts on the implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, to the forum referred to in paragraph 20 above;
  2. Recognizes the importance of incentivizing non-carbon benefits for the long-term sustainability of the implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, and noting the work on methodological issues referred to in decision 1/CP.18, paragraph 40;
  3. Takes note of the estimated budgetary implications of the activities to be undertaken by the secretariat as referred to in paragraphs 14, 15 and 19 above
  4. Requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources.

Gender reference

Establishes the Warsaw international mechanism on loss and damage, to fulfill this role pursuant to decision 3/CP.18,which refers to gender and gender-disaggregated data. It further mandates the mechanism to undertake the collection, sharing, management and use of relevant data and information, including gender-disaggregated data.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling the relevant provisions of the Convention,

Also recalling decisions 1/CP.16, 7/CP.17 and 3/CP.18,

Acknowledging the contribution of adaptation and risk management strategies towards addressing loss and damage associated with climate change impacts,

Also acknowledging that loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change includes, and in some cases involves more than, that which can be reduced by adaptation,

Recalling its decision to establish, at its nineteenth session, institutional arrangements, such as an international mechanism, including functions and modalities, to address loss and damage associated with the impacts of climate change in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, 

1. Establishes the Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage, under the Cancun Adaptation Framework, subject to review at the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties (November–December 2016) pursuant to paragraph 15 below, to address loss and damage associated with impacts of climate change, including extreme events and slow onset events, in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change (hereinafter referred to as the Warsaw international mechanism), and in line with the provisions contained in paragraphs 2−15 below;

2. Also establishes an executive committee of the Warsaw international mechanism, which shall function under the guidance of, and be accountable to, the Conference of the Parties, to guide the implementation of functions referred to under paragraph 5 below;

3. Requests the executive committee to report annually to the Conference of the Parties through the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation and make recommendations, as appropriate;

4. Decides that, as an interim measure, the executive committee shall consist of two representatives from each of the following bodies under the Convention, ensuring that there is a balanced representation between developed and developing country Parties: the Adaptation Committee, the Least Developed Countries Expert Group, the Standing Committee on Finance, the Technology Executive Committee and the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention;

5. Also decides that the Warsaw international mechanism shall fulfil the role under the Convention of promoting the implementation of approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, pursuant to decision 3/CP.18, in a comprehensive, integrated and coherent manner by undertaking, inter alia, the following functions:

  • (a) Enhancing knowledge and understanding of comprehensive risk management approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including slow onset impacts, by facilitating and promoting:
  • (i) Action to address gaps in the understanding of and expertise in approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including, inter alia, the areas outlined in decision 3/CP.18, paragraph 7(a);
  • (ii) Collection, sharing, management and use of relevant data and information, including gender-disaggregated data;
  • (iii) Provision of overviews of best practices, challenges, experiences and lessons learned in undertaking approaches to address loss and damage;
  • (b) Strengthening dialogue, coordination, coherence and synergies among relevant stakeholders by:
  • (i) Providing leadership and coordination and, as and where appropriate, oversight under the Convention, on the assessment and implementation of approaches to address loss and damage associated with the impacts of climate change from extreme events and slow onset events associated with the adverse effects of climate change;
  • (ii) Fostering dialogue, coordination, coherence and synergies among all relevant stakeholders, institutions, bodies, processes and initiatives outside the Convention, with a view to promoting cooperation and collaboration across relevant work and activities at all levels;
  • (c) Enhancing action and support, including finance, technology and capacitybuilding, to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, so as to enable countries to undertake actions pursuant to decision 3/CP.18, paragraph 6, including by:
  • (i) Providing technical support and guidance on approaches to address loss and damage associated with climate change impacts, including extreme events and slow onset events;
  • (ii) Providing information and recommendations for consideration by the Conference of the Parties when providing guidance relevant to reducing the risks of loss and damage and, where necessary, addressing loss and damage, including to the operating entities of the financial mechanism of the Convention, as appropriate;
  • (iii) Facilitating the mobilization and securing of expertise, and enhancement of support, including finance, technology and capacity-building, to strengthen existing approaches and, where necessary, facilitate the development and implementation of additional approaches to address loss and damage associated with climate change impacts, including extreme weather events and slow onset events;

6. Further decides that the Warsaw international mechanism should complement, draw upon the work of and involve, as appropriate, existing bodies and expert groups under the Convention, as well as on that of relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Convention, at all levels;

7. Decides that, in exercising the functions outlined in paragraph 5 above, the Warsaw international mechanism will, inter alia:

  • (a) Facilitate support of actions to address loss and damage;
  • (b) Improve coordination of the relevant work of existing bodies under the Convention;
  • (c) Convene meetings of relevant experts and stakeholders;
  • (d) Promote the development of, and compile, analyse, synthesize and review information;
  • (e) Provide technical guidance and support;
  • (f) Make recommendations, as appropriate, on how to enhance engagement, actions and coherence under and outside the Convention, including on how to mobilize resources and expertise at different levels;

8. Invites the Executive Secretary, in consultation with the President of the Conference of the Parties, to convene the initial meeting of the executive committee by March 2014, the meetings of which will be open to observers, and invite representatives of relevant international and regional organizations having the necessary skills in approaches to addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events;

9. Requests the executive committee to develop its initial two-year workplan for the implementation of the functions outlined in paragraph 5 above, including the scheduling of meetings, taking into account the issues outlined in decision 3/CP.18, paragraphs 6 and 7, for consideration at the forty-first sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (December 2014);

10. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to consider the composition of, and procedures for, the executive committee, and to make recommendations thereon for adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its twentieth session (December 2014), with a view to finalizing the organization and governance of the executive committee;

11. Invites relevant international and regional organizations, institutions and processes to integrate, where appropriate, measures to address the impacts of climate change and to explore and strengthen synergies in the context of addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse impacts of climate change, especially in particularly vulnerable developing countries;

12. Also invites Parties to work through the United Nations and other relevant institutions, specialized agencies and processes, as appropriate, to promote coherence at all levels in approaches relevant to addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme events and slow onset events;

13. Further invites Parties to strengthen and, where appropriate, develop institutions and networks at the regional and national levels, especially in particularly vulnerable developing countries, to enhance the implementation of relevant approaches to addressing loss and damage in a manner that is country-driven, encourages cooperation and coordination between relevant stakeholders and improves the flow of information;

14. Requests developed country Parties to provide developing country Parties with finance, technology and capacity-building, in accordance with decision 1/CP.16 and other relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties;

15. Decides to review the Warsaw international mechanism, including its structure, mandate and effectiveness, at the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties, with a view to adopting an appropriate decision on the outcome of this review;

16. Takes note of the budgetary implications of the activities to be undertaken by the secretariat pursuant to the provisions contained in this decision;

17. Requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources.

Gender reference

Decides that the Executive Committee shall be composed of the following, taking into account the goal of gender balance pursuant to decision 23/CP.18:

Approves the initial two-year workplan of the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts as contained in Annex II to document FCCC/SB/2014/4, with two activities under Action area 1:

  • Enhance the understanding of
    • how loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change affect particularly vulnerable developing countries, segments of the population that are already vulnerable owing to geography, socioeconomic status, livelihoods, gender, age, indigenous or minority status or disability, and the ecosystems that they depend on, and
    • how the implementation of approaches to address loss and damage can benefit them

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Reaffirming the provisions contained in decisions 3/CP.18 and 2/CP.19,

Appreciating the work of the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts to develop its initial two-year workplan,

Taking note of the report of the Executive Committee,

1. Approves the initial two-year workplan of the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts;

2. Notes the useful inputs provided by Parties, observers and other organizations as part of the transparent, inclusive and participatory process of developing the initial two-year workplan of the Executive Committee;

3. Reaffirms the establishment of the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts, under the guidance of, and accountable to, the Conference of the Parties, to guide the implementation of the functions of the Warsaw International Mechanism referred to in decision 2/CP.19, paragraph 5;

4. Also reaffirms the request to the Executive Committee to report annually to the Conference of the Parties through the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation and make recommendations, as appropriate;

5. Decides that the Executive Committee shall be composed of the following, taking into account the goal of gender balance pursuant to decision 23/CP.18:

  • (a) Ten members from Parties included in Annex I to the Convention (Annex I Parties);
  • (b) Ten members from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (nonAnnex I Parties), comprising two members each from the African, Asia-Pacific, and the Latin American and Caribbean States, one member from small island developing States, one member from least developed country Parties, and two additional members from nonAnnex I Parties;

6. Encourages Parties to nominate to the Executive Committee experts with the diversity of experience and knowledge relevant to loss and damage associated with climate change impacts;

7. Decides that members shall serve for a term of two years and shall be eligible to serve a maximum of two consecutive terms of office, and that the following rules shall apply:

  • (a) Half of the members shall be elected initially for a term of three years and half of the members shall be elected for a term of two years;
  • (b) Thereafter, the Conference of the Parties shall elect members for a term of two years;
  • (c) The members shall remain in office until their successors have been elected;

8. Also decides that the Executive Committee may establish expert groups, subcommittees, panels, thematic advisory groups or task-focused ad hoc working groups to help execute the work of the Executive Committee in guiding the implementation of the Warsaw International Mechanism, as appropriate, in an advisory role, and that report to the Executive Committee;

9. Further decides that decisions of the Executive Committee shall be taken by consensus;

10. Decides that the Executive Committee shall elect annually Co-Chairs from among its members to serve for a term of one year, with one being a member from an Annex I Party and the other being a member from a non-Annex I Party;

11. Also decides on other related provisions including:

  • (a) If one or both Co-Chairs are absent from a particular meeting, any other member designated by the Executive Committee shall temporarily serve as the Co-Chair or Chair of that meeting;
  • (b) If a Co-Chair is unable to complete the term of office, the Executive Committee shall elect a replacement to complete that term of office;

12. Further decides that the Executive Committee shall meet at least twice per year, while retaining its flexibility to adjust the number of meetings, as appropriate;

13. Decides that the Executive Committee shall convene its first meeting as soon as practical following the election of its members commencing at the twentieth session of the Conference of the Parties but no later than March 2015, and at its first meeting shall adopt its rules of procedure and begin implementing its workplan;

14. Also decides that the meetings of the Executive Committee shall be open to attendance by admitted observer organizations, except where otherwise decided by the Executive Committee, with a view to encouraging a balanced regional representation of observers;

15. Further decides that the decisions and outputs of the Executive Committee shall be made publicly available on the UNFCCC website unless decided otherwise by the Executive Committee;

16. Decides that English shall be the working language of the Executive Committee;

17. Also decides that the secretariat shall support and facilitate the work of the Executive Committee, subject to the availability of resources.

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