Gender Mandates in Climate Policy

Before you start

In the last few years, the UNFCCC – the only one out of three Rio Conventions that lacked mandates on women’s rights and gender equality from the outset – has made major strides in integrating gender across all thematic areas in the negotiations. Most notable in recent years are the launch in 2014 of the Lima Work Programme on Gender and the integration of gender in the Paris Agreement as a preambular principle for all climate action, as well as in relation to adaptation and capacity building. Decisions have aimed to enhance gender equality via both policy and practice, encouraging gender balance in decision-making as well as responsiveness to gender issues in the development, implementation and monitoring of climate change policies and actions.

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Gender reference

5. Encourages regional groups, in nominating their experts to the Consultative Group of Experts, to make every effort to ensure balanced representation in the areas of expertise referred to in paragraph 4 above, as well as take into account gender balance in accordance with decisions 36/CP.7 and 23/CP.18. As part of fulfilling the mandate of the CGE, this decision also requested the CGGE to provide technical advice and support to Parties on the provision of information on steps to integrate climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling the relevant provisions of the Convention, in particular Article 4, paragraphs 1, 3 and 7, and Article 12, paragraphs 1, 4, 5 and 7,

Also recalling decisions 8/CP.5, 3/CP.8, 17/CP.8, 8/CP.11, 5/CP.15, 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17, 14/CP.17, 17/CP.18 and 18/CP.18,

Acknowledging that the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention has made a substantial contribution to improving the process of the preparation of national communications by Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (non-Annex I Parties) by providing technical advice and support and therefore enhancing the capacity of such Parties to prepare their national communications,

Recalling decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 60, that decided to enhance the reporting in national communications from non-Annex I Parties, and emphasizing that the Consultative Group of Experts could continue to provide technical advice and support for the preparation of biennial update reports,

Emphasizing the importance of providing relevant technical advice and support for the process of the preparation of national communications and biennial update reports, as well as the importance of providing a forum for non-Annex I Parties to share their experiences of this process,

Recognizing that developing countries require enhanced support in the process of enhanced reporting,

Also recognizing that the preparation of national communications and biennial update reports is a continuous process,

1. Decides to continue the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention for a period of five years from 2014 to 2018;

2. Also decides that the Consultative Group of Experts, in fulfilling its mandate, shall function in accordance with the revised terms of reference contained in the annex to this decision;

3. Further decides that the membership of the Consultative Group of Experts shall be the same as set out in decision 3/CP.8, annex, paragraphs 3–8;

4. Decides that the Consultative Group of Experts shall be composed of experts drawn from the UNFCCC roster of experts with expertise in at least one of the sections of national communications or biennial update reports in accordance with the relevant guidelines;

5. Encourages regional groups, in nominating their experts to the Consultative Group of Experts, to make every effort to ensure balanced representation in the areas of expertise referred to in paragraph 4 above, as well as take into account gender balance in accordance with decisions 36/CP.7 and 23/CP.18;

6. Requests the secretariat to publish the list of the members of the Consultative Group of Experts, including their respective area of expertise and experience relating to national communications and/or biennial update reports, and to notify the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of such appointments;

7. Also requests the Consultative Group of Experts to submit a progress report annually on its work to the Subsidiary Body for Implementation for its consideration at the sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation which are held in conjunction with the sessions of the Conference of the Parties;

8. Decides to review, at its twenty-second session (November–December 2016), the mandate and terms of reference of the Consultative Group of Experts, with a view to adopting a decision at the same session;

9. Requests the secretariat to facilitate the work of the Consultative Group of Experts by:

  • (a) Organizing meetings and workshops of the Consultative Group of Experts and compiling reports on its meetings and workshops for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation;
  • (b) Providing technical support to the Consultative Group of Experts, as required, in relation to the process of and the preparation of national communications or biennial update reports by non-Annex I Parties;
  • (c) Liaising with other relevant multilateral programmes and organizations with a view to providing additional financial and technical support to the Consultative Group of Experts, as required, related to the preparation of national communications and biennial update reports;
  • (d) Disseminating the information materials and technical reports prepared by the Consultative Group of Experts to Parties, and other relevant experts and organizations;
  • (e) Providing assistance, including technical and logistical support, to the Consultative Group of Experts for developing and organizing appropriate training programmes for nominated technical experts, on the basis of the most updated training materials of the Consultative Group of Experts, with a view to improving the technical analysis, taking into account the difficulties encountered by non-Annex I Parties in the preparation of their biennial update reports;

10. Urges developed country Parties included in Annex II to the Convention and other developed country Parties in a position to do so to provide financial resources to enhance the support provided by the secretariat to the work of the Consultative Group of Experts and to support the full operation of the work of the Consultative Group of Experts;

11. Takes note of, as provided by the secretariat, the estimated budgetary implications of the actions requested of the secretariat in paragraph 9 above and other actions contained in the annex to this decision;

12. Also takes note that the requirements for additional resources for the implementation of the relevant actions referred to in paragraph 9 above and in the annex to this decision cannot be met by the approved core budget of the secretariat for the biennium 2014–2015;

13. Requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources.

Annex

Terms of reference of the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention

1. The Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (CGE) shall have the objective of improving the process of and preparation of national communications and biennial update reports by Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (non-Annex I Parties) by providing technical advice and support to such Parties.

2. The CGE, in fulfilling its mandate, shall:

  • (a) Identify and provide technical assistance regarding problems and constraints that have affected the process of and the preparation of national communications and biennial update reports by non-Annex I Parties;
  • (b) Provide technical assistance and support to non-Annex I Parties to facilitate the process of and preparation of their national communications and biennial update reports in accordance with the “Guidelines for the preparation of national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention” contained in the annex to decision 17/CP.8 and the “UNFCCC biennial update reporting guidelines for Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention” contained in annex III to decision 2/CP.17;
  • (c) Provide technical advice to non-Annex I Parties to facilitate the development and long-term sustainability of processes of the preparation of national communications and biennial update reports, including the elaboration of appropriate institutional arrangements and the establishment and maintenance of national technical teams, for the preparation of national communications and biennial update reports, including greenhouse gas inventories, on a continuous basis;
  • (d) Provide recommendations, as appropriate, on elements to be considered in a future revision of the guidelines for the preparation of national communications and biennial update reports from non-Annex I Parties, taking into account the difficulties encountered by non-Annex I Parties in the preparation of their national communications and biennial update reports;
  • (e) Provide technical advice and support to Parties, upon request, and information on existing activities and programmes, including bilateral, regional and multilateral sources of financial and technical assistance, to facilitate and support the preparation of national communications and biennial update reports by non-Annex I Parties;
  • (f) Provide technical advice and support to Parties, upon request, on the provision of information on steps to integrate climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions, in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 1(f), of the Convention;
  • (g) Provide information and technical advice based on, where possible, lessons learned and best practices in the process of and preparation of national communications and biennial update reports by non-Annex I Parties, including in relation to finance and other support available;
  • (h) Provide guidance and periodic advice to the secretariat to assist it in fulfilling the selection criteria for the composition of the team of technical experts, in accordance with decision 20/CP.19, annex, paragraphs 3–5, taking also into account the reports provided by the secretariat in this regard on a semi-annual basis;
  • (i) Develop and organize, with assistance of the secretariat, appropriate training programmes for nominated technical experts to begin no later than in 2014, based on the most updated training materials of the Consultative Group of Experts, with a view to improving the technical analysis taking into account the difficulties encountered by nonAnnex I Parties in the preparation of their biennial update reports.

3. The Consultative Group of Experts shall, in defining and implementing its work programme, take into account other relevant work by expert groups under the Convention in order to avoid duplication of work.

4. The Consultative Group of Experts shall revise its rules of procedure, if needed.

5. The Consultative Group of Experts shall develop, at its first meeting in 2014, a work programme for 2014–2018.

6. The Consultative Group of Experts shall forward recommendations on the matters referred to in paragraph 2 above for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation as appropriate.

Gender reference

5. Welcomes the implementation of mandatory compliance for implementing entities with the Adaptation Fund’s environmental and social safeguards and gender policy, which enhances the effectiveness of the Adaptation Fund; [...]

8. Requests the Adaptation Fund Board:

(a) To consider lessons learned from the Adaptation Fund’s engagement with private sector stakeholders in adaptation projects at the local level, including in the decision-making processes of the Adaptation Fund and in communications with donors; 

(b) To monitor and assess project approval time under the Readiness Programme, identifying any linkages of this time to the introduction of the Adaptation Fund’s environmental and social policy, and to take measures to reduce the time, as necessary, while continuing to implement its environmental and social safeguards and gender policy;

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol,

Recalling decisions 2/CMP.10 and 1/CMP.12,

Reiterating the crucial importance of the Adaptation Fund as an essential channel for supporting adaptation action and the main promoter of direct access, together with its focus on funding the full costs of concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries,

Noting with deep concern the continued issues related to the sustainability, adequacy and predictability of funding from the Adaptation Fund, given the current prices of certified emission reductions, which affect its ability to fulfil its mandate,

1. Takes note of the technical paper on the third review of the Adaptation Fund,1 based on the terms of reference for the review contained in the annex to decision 1/CMP.12;

2. Welcomes the completion of phase 1 of the independent evaluation of the Adaptation Fund and looks forward to phase 2;

3. Recognizes the lessons learned and progress made since the second review of the Adaptation Fund, including initiatives and improvements such as modalities to enable enhancement of the direct access modality, the Readiness Programme including its South– South mentoring channel, a streamlined process for accreditation for small entities and guidance on accreditation standards;

4. Also recognizes the comparative advantage of the Adaptation Fund, including the speed of project approval, the strategic engagement by stakeholders at the subnational level, the various institutional benefits, the efficiency of institutional arrangements and the enhancement of country ownership in the funding process;

5. Welcomes the implementation of mandatory compliance for implementing entities with the Adaptation Fund’s environmental and social safeguards and gender policy, which enhances the effectiveness of the Adaptation Fund;

6. Notes the efforts made by the Adaptation Fund Board in enhancing cooperation with other funds to ensure coherence and complementarity;

7. Encourages the Adaptation Fund Board:

(a) To consider options for improvement of efficiency with regard to the operation of the Adaptation Fund;

(b) To continue to engage with subnational actors and the private sector through, inter alia, microfinance schemes, weather-based insurance arrangements, involvement with local industry groups and farmers in adaptation projects, and public–private partnerships;

(c) To consider voluntary tracking of climate finance mobilized, where appropriate;

(d) To continue the efforts to enhance complementarity and coherence with other funds both under and outside the Convention;

8. Requests the Adaptation Fund Board:

(a) To consider lessons learned from the Adaptation Fund’s engagement with private sector stakeholders in adaptation projects at the local level, including in the decision-making processes of the Adaptation Fund and in communications with donors;

(b) To monitor and assess project approval time under the Readiness Programme, identifying any linkages of this time to the introduction of the Adaptation Fund’s environmental and social policy, and to take measures to reduce the time, as necessary, while continuing to implement its environmental and social safeguards and gender policy;

(c) To continue to provide information on project approval time;

(d) To continue monitoring the adaptation impacts and results of the Adaptation Fund, including using local and sector-specific metrics;

(e) To report on progress made on the mandates arising from this decision in the future reports of the Adaptation Fund to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol;

9. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, at its session to be held in June 2020, to initiate the fourth review of the Adaptation Fund, in accordance with the terms of reference contained in the annex to decision 1/CMP.12, or as amended, and to report back to its governing body to be convened in conjunction with the twenty-seventh session of the Conference of the Parties (November 2021). 

Gender reference

4. Also invites the Paris Committee on Capacity-building, in managing the 2016–2020 workplan:

(a) To take into consideration cross-cutting issues such as gender responsiveness, human rights and indigenous peoples’ knowledge;

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 2/CP.7, 1/CP.21, and 14/CP.21,

Reaffirming that capacity-building should be a participatory, country-driven and continuous process consistent with national priorities and circumstances,

Also reaffirming that capacity-building is an integral component of the means of implementation to enable developing country Parties to implement the Convention and the Paris Agreement,

Noting with appreciation the technical paper prepared by the secretariat on the third comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries,

Recognizing the active engagement of a wide spectrum of stakeholders, including State and non-State actors, in planning, implementing and monitoring activities with capacity-building components,

Also recognizing the significant increase of information on capacity-building activities made available by Parties, international organizations, the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism, United Nations specialized agencies and other institutions,

Noting with appreciation the success of the 5th meeting of the Durban Forum for indepth discussion on capacity-building, held during the forty-fourth session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation,

Noting the significant participation of non-State actors in the 5th meeting of the Durban Forum and their useful contributions to the discussions,

Also noting good practices in capacity-building that foster country-driven processes, country ownership, South–South cooperation, participatory as well as iterative approaches to capacity-building,

1. Recognizes that, while the objective and scope of capacity-building in developing countries as contained in decision 2/CP.7 are still relevant, current and emerging areas in the context of the Convention and the Paris Agreement should also be taken into account in the further implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries;

2. Recalls that the Paris Committee on Capacity-building aims to address both current and emerging gaps and needs in implementing capacity-building in developing country Parties and to further enhance capacity-building efforts, including with regard to coherence and coordination in capacity-building activities under the Convention;

3. Invites Parties to consider how to enhance existing reporting on the impacts of capacity-building activities, good practices and lessons learned and on how these are fed back into relevant processes to enhance the implementation of capacity-building activities; 

4. Also invites the Paris Committee on Capacity-building, in managing the 2016–2020 workplan:

(a) To take into consideration cross-cutting issues such as gender responsiveness, human rights and indigenous peoples’ knowledge;

(b) To take into consideration the outcomes of the third comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries;

(c) To take into consideration previous work undertaken on indicators for capacity-building;

(d) To promote and explore linkages with other constituted bodies under the Convention and the Paris Agreement, as appropriate, that include capacity-building in their scopes;

(e) To promote and explore synergies for enhanced collaboration with institutions outside the Convention and the Paris Agreement engaged in implementing capacity-building activities;

(f) To take into consideration ways of enhancing reporting on capacity-building activities, taking into account all initiatives, actions and measures on capacity-building under the Convention and the Paris Agreement as well as existing reporting mandates, in order to achieve coherence and coordination;

5. Further invites Parties to foster networking and enhance their collaboration with academia and research centres, with a view to promoting individual, institutional and systemic capacity-building through education, training and public awareness;

6. Invites the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to facilitate complementarity between the Durban Forum and the Paris Committee on Capacity-building;

7. Also invites Parties to cooperate in order to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement the Convention and the Paris Agreement, and further invites developed country Parties to enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing country Parties;

8. Further invites relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as the private sector, academia and other stakeholders, to continue incorporating into their work programmes the scope of needs referred to in paragraph 1 above as contained in decision 2/CP.7;

9. Invites United Nations agencies, multilateral organizations and relevant admitted observer organizations engaged in providing capacity-building support to developing countries to provide information to the secretariat to be uploaded on the capacity-building portal; 

10. Also invites Parties to submit, by 9 March 2017, their views on potential topics for the 6th meeting of the Durban Forum;

11. Further invites Parties to submit, by 9 March 2017, their views on the fourth review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in countries with economies in transition, to be conducted at the forty-sixth session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (May 2017) and concluded at the twenty-third session of the Conference of the Parties (November 2017); 

12. Decides to conclude the third comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries under the Convention and to initiate the fourth comprehensive review thereof at the fiftieth session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (June 2019), with a view to completing that review at the twenty-fifth session of the Conference of the Parties (November 2019);

13. Takes note of the budgetary implications of the activities to be undertaken by the secretariat pursuant to the provisions contained in paragraph 4 above;

14. Requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources.

Gender reference

The Preamble of Decision 1/CP.16 notes resolution 10/4 of the UN Human Rights Council on human rights and climate change, and notes differential impacts of climate change on segments of the population, owing to intersections such as age and gender. Additionally, in the operative section on ‘Shared Vision’, the decision recognizes that gender equality and the effective participation of women are important for effective climate action on all aspects of climate change.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling its decision 1/CP.13 (the Bali Action Plan) and decision 1/CP.15,

Seeking to secure progress in a balanced manner, with the understanding that, through this decision, not all aspects of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Longterm Cooperative Action under the Convention are concluded, and that nothing in this decision shall prejudge prospects for, or the content of, a legally binding outcome in the future,

Reaffirming the commitment to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012, in order to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention,

Recalling the principles, provisions and commitments set forth in the Convention, in particular its Articles 3 and 4,

Recognizing that climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and the planet, and thus requires to be urgently addressed by all Parties,

Affirming the legitimate needs of developing country Parties for the achievement of sustained economic growth and the eradication of poverty, so as to be able to deal with climate change,

Noting resolution 10/4 of the United Nations Human Rights Council on human rights and climate change, which recognizes that the adverse effects of climate change have a range of direct and indirect implications for the effective enjoyment of human rights and that the effects of climate change will be felt most acutely by those segments of the population that are already vulnerable owing to geography, gender, age, indigenous or minority status, or disability,

I. A shared vision for long-term cooperative action

1. Affirms that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and that all Parties share a vision for long-term cooperative action in order to achieve the objective of the Convention under its Article 2, including through the achievement of a global goal, on the basis of equity and in accordance with common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities; this vision is to guide the policies and actions of all Parties, while taking into full consideration the different circumstances of Parties in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Convention; the vision addresses mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology development and transfer, and capacity-building in a balanced, integrated and comprehensive manner to enhance and achieve the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention, now, up to and beyond 2012;

2. Further affirms that:

  • (a) Scaled-up overall mitigation efforts that allow for the achievement of desired stabilization levels are necessary, with developed country Parties showing leadership by undertaking ambitious emission reductions and providing technology, capacity-building and financial resources to developing country Parties, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention;
  • (b) Adaptation must be addressed with the same priority as mitigation and requires appropriate institutional arrangements to enhance adaptation action and support;
  • (c) All Parties should cooperate, consistent with the principles of the Convention, through effective mechanisms, enhanced means and appropriate enabling environments, and enhance technology development and the transfer of technologies to developing country Parties to enable action on mitigation and adaptation;
  • (d) Mobilization and provision of scaled-up, new, additional, adequate and predictable financial resources is necessary to address the adaptation and mitigation needs of developing countries;
  • (e) Capacity-building is essential to enable developing country Parties to participate fully in, and to implement effectively, their commitments under the Convention; and that the goal is to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties in all areas;

3. Recognizes that warming of the climate system is unequivocal and that most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, as assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in its Fourth Assessment Report;

4. Further recognizes that deep cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions are required according to science, and as documented in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with a view to reducing global greenhouse gas emissions so as to hold the increase in global average temperature below 2 °C above preindustrial levels, and that Parties should take urgent action to meet this long-term goal, consistent with science and on the basis of equity; also recognizes the need to consider, in the context of the first review, as referred to in paragraph 138 below, strengthening the long-term global goal on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge, including in relation to a global average temperature rise of 1.5 °C;

5. Agrees, in the context of the long-term goal and the ultimate objective of the Convention and the Bali Action Plan, to work towards identifying a global goal for substantially reducing global emissions by 2050, and to consider it at the seventeenth session of the Conference of the Parties;

6. Also agrees that Parties should cooperate in achieving the peaking of global and national greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that the time frame for peaking will be longer in developing countries, and bearing in mind that social and economic development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of developing countries and that a low-carbon development strategy is indispensable to sustainable development; in this context, further agrees to work towards identifying a time frame for global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions based on the best available scientific knowledge and equitable access to sustainable development, and to consider it at the seventeenth session of the Conference of the Parties;

7. Recognizes the need to engage a broad range of stakeholders at the global, regional, national and local levels, be they government, including subnational and local government, private business or civil society, including youth and persons with disability, and that gender equality and the effective participation of women and indigenous peoples are important for effective action on all aspects of climate change;

8. Emphasizes that Parties should, in all climate change related actions, fully respect human rights;

9. Confirms that Parties, especially developing country Parties that would have to bear a disproportionate or abnormal burden under the long-term cooperative action under the Convention, should be given full consideration;

10. Realizes that addressing climate change requires a paradigm shift towards building a low-carbon society that offers substantial opportunities and ensures continued high growth and sustainable development, based on innovative technologies and more sustainable production and consumption and lifestyles, while ensuring a just transition of the workforce that creates decent work and quality jobs;

If you wish to read the full decision, including annexes, see the URL here

Gender reference

Affirms that enhanced action on adaptation should follow a country-driven, gender-sensitive, participatory and fully transparent approach.

Elaborated language

II. Enhanced action on adaptation

11. Agrees that adaptation is a challenge faced by all Parties, and that enhanced action and international cooperation on adaptation is urgently required to enable and support the implementation of adaptation actions aimed at reducing vulnerability and building resilience in developing country Parties, taking into account the urgent and immediate needs of those developing countries that are particularly vulnerable;

12. Affirms that enhanced action on adaptation should be undertaken in accordance with the Convention, should follow a country-driven, gender-sensitive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional and indigenous knowledge, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate;

13. Decides to hereby establish the Cancun Adaptation Framework encompassing the provisions laid out below, with the objective of enhancing action on adaptation, including through international cooperation and coherent consideration of matters relating to adaptation under the Convention;

14. Invites all Parties to enhance action on adaptation under the Cancun Adaptation Framework, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, and specific national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, by undertaking, inter alia, the following:

  • (a) Planning, prioritizing and implementing adaptation actions, including projects and programmes,and actions identified in national and subnational adaptation plans and strategies, national adaptation programmes of action of the least developed countries, national communications, technology needs assessments and other relevant national planning documents;
  • (b) Impact, vulnerability and adaptation assessments, including assessments of financial needs as well as economic, social and environmental evaluation of adaptation options;
  • (c) Strengthening institutional capacities and enabling environments for adaptation, including for climate-resilient development and vulnerability reduction;
  • (d) Building resilience of socio-economic and ecological systems, including through economic diversification and sustainable management of natural resources;
  • (e) Enhancing climate change related disaster risk reduction strategies, taking into consideration the Hyogo Framework for Action, where appropriate, early warning systems, risk assessment and management, and sharing and transfer mechanisms such as insurance, at the local, national, subregional and regional levels, as appropriate;
  • (f) Measures to enhance understanding, coordination and cooperation with regard to climate change induced displacement, migration and planned relocation, where appropriate, at the national, regional and international levels;
  • (g) Research, development, demonstration, diffusion, deployment and transfer of technologies, practices and processes, and capacity-building for adaptation, with a view to promoting access to technologies, in particular in developing country Parties;
  • (h) Strengthening data, information and knowledge systems, education and public awareness;
  • (i) Improving climate-related research and systematic observation for climate data collection, archiving, analysis and modelling in order to provide decision makers at the national and regional levels with improved climate-related data and information;

15. Decides to hereby establish a process to enable least developed country Parties to formulate and implement national adaptation plans, building upon their experience in preparing and implementing national adaptation programmes of action, as a means of identifying medium- and long-term adaptation needs and developing and implementing strategies and programmes to address those needs;

16. Invites other developing country Parties to employ the modalities formulated to support the above-mentioned national adaptation plans in the elaboration of their planning effort referred to in paragraph 14 (a) above;

17. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to elaborate modalities and guidelines for the provisions of paragraphs 15 and 16 above, for adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session;

18. Requests developed country Parties to provide developing country Parties, taking into account the needs of those that are particularly vulnerable, with long-term, scaled-up, predictable, new and additional finance, technology and capacity-building, consistent with relevant provisions, to implement urgent, short-, medium- and long-term adaptation actions, plans, programmes and projects at the local, national, subregional and regional levels, in and across different economic and social sectors and ecosystems, as well as to undertake the activities referred to in paragraphs 14–16 above and paragraphs 30, 32 and 33 below;

19. Acknowledges the need to strengthen, enhance and better utilize existing institutional arrangements and expertise under the Convention;

20. Decides to hereby establish an Adaptation Committee to promote the implementation of enhanced action on adaptation in a coherent manner under the Convention, inter alia, through the following functions:

  • (a) Providing technical support and guidance to the Parties, respecting the country-driven approach, with a view to facilitating the implementation of adaptation activities, including those listed in paragraphs 14 and 15 above, where appropriate;
  • (b) Strengthening, consolidating and enhancing the sharing of relevant information, knowledge, experience and good practices, at the local, national, regional and international levels, taking into account, as appropriate, traditional knowledge and practices;
  • (c) Promoting synergy and strengthening engagement with national, regional and international organizations, centres and networks, in order to enhance the implementation of adaptation actions, in particular in developing country Parties;
  • (d) Providing information and recommendations, drawing on adaptation good practices, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties when providing guidance on means to incentivize the implementation of adaptation actions, including finance, technology and capacity-building and other ways to enable climate-resilient development and reduce vulnerability, including to the operating entities of the financial mechanism of the Convention, as appropriate;
  • (e) Considering information communicated by Parties on their monitoring and review of adaptation actions, support provided and received, possible needs and gaps and other relevant information, including information communicated under the Convention, with a view to recommending what further actions may be required, as appropriate;

21. Invites Parties to submit to the secretariat, by 21 February 2011, views on the composition of, and modalities and procedures for, the Adaptation Committee, including on proposed linkages with other relevant institutional arrangements;

22. Requests the secretariat to compile these submissions into a miscellaneous document, to be made available by the fourteenth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention, and to prepare a synthesis report based on those submissions by the fourteenth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention;

23. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention, taking into account the above-mentioned submissions and synthesis report, to elaborate the composition of, and modalities and procedures for, the Adaptation Committee, for adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session;

24. Also requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention, in elaborating the above-mentioned modalities and procedures, to define, as appropriate, linkages with other relevant institutional arrangements under and outside the Convention, including at the national and regional levels;

25. Recognizes the need to strengthen international cooperation and expertise in order to understand and reduce loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including impacts related to extreme weather events and slow onset events;

26. Decides to hereby establish a work programme in order to consider, including through workshops and expert meetings, as appropriate, approaches to address loss and damage associated with climate change impacts in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change;

27. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to agree on activities to be undertaken under the above-mentioned work programme;

28. Invites Parties and relevant organizations to submit to the secretariat, by 21 February 2011, views and information on what elements should be included in the work programme, including the following:

  • (a) Possible development of a climate risk insurance facility to address impacts associated with severe weather events;
  • (b) Options for risk management and reduction, risk sharing and transfer mechanisms such as insurance, including options for micro-insurance, and resiliencebuilding, including through economic diversification;
  • (c) Approaches for addressing rehabilitation measures associated with slow onset events;
  • (d) Engagement of stakeholders with relevant specialized expertise;

29. Requests the secretariat to compile these submissions into a miscellaneous document and to prepare a synthesis report based on those submissions, to be made available for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its thirty-fourth session, and with a view to making recommendations on loss and damage to the Conference of the Parties for its consideration at its eighteenth session;

30. Invites Parties to strengthen and, where necessary, establish regional centres and networks, in particular in developing countries, with support from developed country Parties and relevant organizations, as appropriate, and to facilitate and enhance national and regional adaptation actions, in a manner that is country-driven, encourages cooperation and coordination between regional stakeholders and improves the flow of information between the Convention process and national and regional activities;

31. Notes that an international centre to enhance adaptation research and coordination could also be established in a developing country;

32. Invites all Parties to strengthen and, where necessary, establish and/or designate national-level institutional arrangements, with a view to enhancing work on the full range of adaptation actions, from planning to implementation;

33. Decides that all Parties should use existing channels to provide information, as appropriate, on support provided and received for adaptation actions in developing countries and on activities undertaken, including, inter alia, progress made, experiences, lessons learned, and challenges and gaps in the delivery of support, with a view to ensuring transparency and accountability and encouraging best practices;

34. Invites relevant multilateral, international, regional and national organizations, the public and private sectors, civil society and other relevant stakeholders to undertake and support enhanced action on adaptation at all levels, including under the Cancun Adaptation Framework, as appropriate, in a coherent and integrated manner, building on synergies among activities and processes, and to make information available on the progress made;

35. Requests the secretariat to support the implementation of the Cancun Adaptation Framework, including related institutional arrangements under the Convention, in accordance with its mandate and subject to the availability of resources;

If you wish to read the full decision, including annexes, see the URL here

Gender reference

As part of policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries, this decision requests developing country Parties, when developing and implementing their national strategies or action plan, to address gender considerations. Additionally, when considering the economic and social consequences of responses to climate change, these should be coordinated with social and economic development, and take fully into account the consequences for vulnerable groups, in particular women and children.

Elaborated language

III. Enhanced action on mitigation

C. Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries

Affirming that, in the context of the provision of adequate and predictable support to developing country Parties, Parties should collectively aim to slow, halt and reverse forest cover and carbon loss, in accordance with national circumstances, consistent with the ultimate objective of the Convention, as stated in Article 2,

Also affirming the need to promote broad country participation in all phases described in paragraph 73 below, including through the provision of support that takes into account existing capacities,

68. Encourages all Parties to find effective ways to reduce the human pressure on forests that results in greenhouse gas emissions, including actions to address drivers of deforestation;

69. Affirms that the implementation of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 below should be carried out in accordance with appendix I to this decision, and that the safeguards referred to in paragraph 2 of appendix I to this decision should be promoted and supported;

70. Encourages developing country Parties to contribute to mitigation actions in the forest sector by undertaking the following activities, as deemed appropriate by each Party and in accordance with their respective capabilities and national circumstances:

  • (a) Reducing emissions from deforestation;
  • (b) Reducing emissions from forest degradation;
  • (c) Conservation of forest carbon stocks;
  • (d) Sustainable management of forests;
  • (e) Enhancement of forest carbon stocks;

71. Requests developing country Parties aiming to undertake the activities referred to in paragraph 70 above, in the context of the provision of adequate and predictable support, including financial resources and technical and technological support to developing country Parties, in accordance with national circumstances and respective capabilities, to develop the following elements:

  • (a) A national strategy or action plan;
  • (b) A national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level or, if appropriate, as an interim measure, subnational forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, in accordance with national circumstances, and with provisions contained in decision 4/CP.15, and with any further elaboration of those provisions adopted by the Conference of the Parties;
  • (c) A robust and transparent national forest monitoring system for the monitoring and reporting of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 above, with, if appropriate, subnational monitoring and reporting as an interim measure, in accordance with national circumstances, and with the provisions contained in decision 4/CP.15, and with any further elaboration of those provisions agreed by the Conference of the Parties;
  • (d) A system for providing information on how the safeguards referred to in appendix I to this decision are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 above, while respecting sovereignty;

72. Also requests developing country Parties, when developing and implementing their national strategies or action plans, to address, inter alia, the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, land tenure issues, forest governance issues, gender considerations and the safeguards identified in paragraph 2 of appendix I to this decision, ensuring the full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders, inter alia indigenous peoples and local communities;

73. Decides that the activities undertaken by Parties referred to in paragraph 70 above should be implemented in phases, beginning with the development of national strategies or action plans, policies and measures, and capacity-building, followed by the implementation of national policies and measures and national strategies or action plans that could involve further capacity-building, technology development and transfer and results-based demonstration activities, and evolving into results-based actions that should be fully measured, reported and verified;

74. Recognizes that the implementation of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 above, including the choice of a starting phase as referred to in paragraph 73 above, depends on the specific national circumstances, capacities and capabilities of each developing country Party and the level of support received;

75. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to develop a work programme on the matters referred to in appendix II to this decision;

76. Urges Parties, in particular developed country Parties, to support, through multilateral and bilateral channels, the development of national strategies or action plans, policies and measures and capacity-building, followed by the implementation of national policies and measures and national strategies or action plans that could involve further capacity-building, technology development and transfer and results-based demonstration activities, including consideration of the safeguards referred to in paragraph 2 of appendix I to this decision, taking into account the relevant provisions on finance including those relating to reporting on support;

77. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to explore financing options for the full implementation of the results-based actions referred to in paragraph 73 above and to report on progress made, including any recommendations for draft decisions on this matter, to the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session;

78. Also requests Parties to ensure coordination of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 above, including of the related support, particularly at the national level;

79. Invites relevant international organizations and stakeholders to contribute to the activities referred to in paragraphs 70 and 78 above; [...]

E. Economic and social consequences of response measures

Reaffirming the importance of the objective of the Convention, and the relevant principles and provisions of the Convention related to economic and social consequences of response measures, in particular its Articles 2, 3 and 4,

Recognizing that the implementation of response measures to mitigate climate change taken by a Party may result in negative economic and social consequences for other Parties, and the need to take into consideration in the implementation of the commitments of the Convention the situation of Parties, particularly developing country Parties, with economies that are vulnerable to the adverse impact of the implementation of measures to respond to climate change, referred to in Article 4, paragraphs 8, 9 and 10, of the Convention,

Affirming that responses to climate change should be coordinated with social and economic development in an integrated manner, with a view to avoiding adverse impacts on the latter, taking fully into account the legitimate priority needs of developing country Parties for the achievement of sustained economic growth and the eradication of poverty, and the consequences for vulnerable groups, in particular women and children,

Recognizing the importance of avoiding or minimizing negative impacts of response measures on social and economic sectors, promoting a just transition of the workforce, the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities and strategies, and contributing to building new capacity for both production and service-related jobs in all sectors, promoting economic growth and sustainable development,

Taking note of relevant provisions of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,

88. Urges Parties, in the implementation of measures to mitigate climate change, to take into consideration the economic and social impacts of response measures and the needs of Parties, in particular developing country Parties, impacted by response measures, consistent with relevant provisions of the Convention;

89. Also urges developed country Parties to strive to implement policies and measures to respond to climate change in such a way as to avoid negative social and economic consequences for developing country Parties, taking into account Article 3 of the Convention, and to assist these Parties to address such consequences by providing support, including financial resources, transfer of technology and capacity-building, in accordance with Article 4 of the Convention, to build up the resilience of societies and economies negatively affected by response measures;

90. Reaffirms that the Parties should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to sustainable economic growth and development in all Parties, particularly developing country Parties, thus enabling them better to address the problems of climate change; measures taken to combat climate change, including unilateral ones, should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade;

91. Agrees that information relating to response measures should be considered in a structured manner in order to enhance the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 1(g) and (h), of the Convention, recognizing the needs of developing country Parties identified in Article 4, paragraphs 8, 9 and 10;

92. Decides that Parties should cooperate fully to enhance understanding of the economic and social consequences of response measures, taking into account the need for information from those affected, and evidence of actual impacts, and of both positive and negative effects; and further decides to consider how existing channels, such as national communications, including the possible submission of supplementary information, as considered by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, could be improved and built upon;

93. Further decides to provide a forum on the impact of the implementation of response measures, and to that end requests the Chairs of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to convene such a forum at the thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth sessions of these bodies, with the objective of developing a work programme under the subsidiary bodies to address these impacts, with a view to adopting, at the seventeenth session of the Conference of the Parties, modalities for the operationalization of the work programme and a possible forum on response measures;

94. Invites Parties and relevant intergovernmental organizations to submit to the secretariat, by 28 March 2011, their views on the issues referred to in paragraph 93 above for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at their thirty-fourth sessions;

If you wish to read the full decision, including annexes, see the URL here

Gender reference

Reaffirming the importance of taking into account gender aspects and the need to promote the effective engagement of children, youth, the elderly, women, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, local communities and non-governmental organizations in activities related to Article 6 of the Convention.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decision 15/CP.18,

Recognizing the progress made by Parties, international organizations and civil society in planning, coordinating and implementing activities relating to all the elements of Article 6 of the Convention – education, training, public awareness, public participation, public access to information, and international cooperation on these matters,

Also recognizing that ensuring the availability of sufficient financial and technical resources continues to be a challenge for the implementation of Article 6 of the Convention for Parties, in particular African countries, the least developed countries and small island developing States,

Reaffirming the importance of taking into account gender aspects and the need to promote the effective engagement of children, youth, the elderly, women, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, local communities and non-governmental organizations in activities related to Article 6 of the Convention,

Re-emphasizing the importance of building and strengthening the skills and capacities of national focal points for Article 6 of the Convention, including by continuing to facilitate a regular exchange of views, good practices and lessons learned through the organization of workshops, videoconferences and activities at the international, regional and national levels,

Recalling the invitation to multilateral and bilateral institutions and organizations, including operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, as appropriate, to provide financial support for the activities relating to the implementation of Article 6 of the Convention,

Also recalling the Lima Ministerial Declaration on Education and Awareness-raising, which stresses that education, training, public awareness, public participation, public access to information, knowledge and international cooperation play a fundamental role in meeting the ultimate objective of the Convention and in promoting climate-resilient sustainable development,

  1. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to launch the intermediate review of the implementation of the Doha work programme on Article 6 of the Convention at its forty-fourth session (May 2016) on the basis of the terms of reference contained in the annex, with a view to the review being completed by November 2016;
  2. Encourages United Nations organizations, in particular the members of the United Nations Alliance on Climate Change Education, Training and Public Awareness, to submit information on the results of their activities, including reports from relevant regional and subregional workshops, as appropriate, in order to support the implementation of the Doha work programme;
  1. Requests the Global Environment Facility to report on the progress made in providing financial support and implementing activities to contribute to the implementation of the Doha work programme;
  2. Invites multilateral and bilateral institutions and organizations, the private sector and donors to report on financial resources provided to support the activities relating to the implementation of Article 6 of the Convention;
  3. Requests the secretariat:
    1. To prepare a report on the progress made, as well as emerging gaps, needs and recommendations by Parties, admitted observer organizations and other stakeholders in implementing the Doha work programme as input to the intermediate review, as specified in paragraph 5 of the terms of reference contained in the annex, for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its forty-fourth session;
    2. To continue facilitating a regular exchange of views, good practices and lessons learned among national focal points for Article 6 of the Convention;
    3. To continue collaborating with admitted observer organizations and other stakeholders and the members of the United Nations Alliance on Climate Change Education, Training and Public Awareness so as to catalyse action on Article 6 of the Convention;
  4. Also requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources.

Annex

Terms of reference for the intermediate review of the Doha work programme on Article 6 of the Convention

  1. Mandate
    1. At its eighteenth session, the Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted the eight-year Doha work programme on Article 6 of the Convention and decided that it would be reviewed in 2020, with an intermediate review of progress in 2016, to evaluate its effectiveness, identify any emerging gaps and needs, and inform any decisions on improving the effectiveness of the work programme, as appropriate.
    2. By the same decision, the COP requested the secretariat to prepare reports on the progress made by Parties in implementing Article 6 of the Convention based on information contained in national communications, reports on the annual in-session

Dialogue on Article 6 and other sources of information, including a report on good practices of stakeholder participation in implementing Article 6 activities. These reports will be issued regularly and in particular for the intermediate progress review in 2016 and the review in 2020.

  1. Objectives
    1. With a view to encouraging improvement based on experience, the objectives of the intermediate review of the progress made in the implementation of the Doha work programme are:
      1. To take stock of the progress made in the implementation of the Doha work programme to date, noting that this work is still ongoing;
      2. To take stock of progress in the integration of Article 6 activities into existing climate change adaptation and mitigation programmes, strategies and activities;
      3. To identify essential needs for, potential gaps in and barriers to the implementation of the Doha work programme;
      4. To identify good practices and lessons learned with a view to their dissemination, promotion and replication, as appropriate;
      5. To identify recommendations on further steps for improving the effective implementation of the Doha work programme.
  2. Information sources
    1. Information for the intermediate review of the implementation of the Doha work programme should be drawn from, inter alia:

      a. Reports on the annual in-session Dialogue on Article 6 of the Convention;

  1. A report on good practices of stakeholder participation in implementing Article 6 of the Convention;
  2. Submissions from Parties, admitted observer organizations and other stakeholders made in response to an invitation by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) at its forty-second session, containing information on steps taken to implement the Doha work programme, such as efforts to consider the linkages between Article 6 activities, implementation of policies and measures to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and on emerging gaps and needs, as well as recommendations on further steps for improving the effective implementation of the Doha work programme;
  3. Relevant conclusions adopted at SBI 40,4 including the annex to document FCCC/SBI/2014/L.20;
  4. National communications and other relevant national reports;
  5. Relevant information and resource materials from United Nations organizations, in particular the members of the United Nations Alliance on Climate Change Education, Training and Public Awareness;
  6. Reports and submissions from the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention and its implementing agencies on financial support provided and activities implemented to contribute to the implementation of the Doha work programme;
  7. Reports and submissions from multilateral and bilateral institutions and organizations, the private sector and donors on financial resources provided to support the implementation of Article 6 of the Convention.

IV.      Modalities of review and expected outcomes

  1. Drawing upon the information sources listed in paragraph 4 above, the secretariat will prepare for consideration at SBI 44 (May 2016):
    1. A synthesis report on the progress made by Parties, admitted observer organizations and other stakeholders in implementing the Doha work programme;
    2. A report on the functionality and accessibility of the information network clearing house CC:iNet.
  2. SBI 44 will consider the documents referred to in paragraph 5 above and any other information relevant to the completion of the intermediate review, including the information referred to in paragraph 4 above, with a view to recommending a draft decision on this matter for consideration and adoption at COP 22 (November 2016).

Gender reference

Annex

II. Principles

3. (b) Be designed and implemented in a manner that facilitates the active participation of all relevant stakeholders and takes into account sustainable development, gender, the special circumstances of the least developed countries and small island developing States, and the enhancement of indigenous capacities and endogenous technologies; 

Elaborated language

Annex

II. Principles 

3. The principles of the technology framework, which are coherence, inclusiveness, results-oriented approach, transformational approach and transparency, should guide the Technology Mechanism in implementing the Paris Agreement, as follows: 

(a) Align with the long-term vision for technology development and transfer and other provisions of the Paris Agreement, national plans and strategies under the Convention and actions undertaken by relevant institutions in the international climate regime and beyond;

(b) Be designed and implemented in a manner that facilitates the active participation of all relevant stakeholders and takes into account sustainable development, gender, the special circumstances of the least developed countries and small island developing States, and the enhancement of indigenous capacities and endogenous technologies;

(c) Be results-oriented in terms of output, outcome and impact;

(d) Address the transformational changes envisioned in the Paris Agreement;

(e) Be designed and implemented in a manner that enhances the transparency of the results, costs and process, such as through planning, resource management and reporting on activities and support. 
 
 

Gender reference

Annex: Updated guidelines for the sixth review of the Financial Mechanism

C. Criteria

3. The effectiveness of the Financial Mechanism will be assessed taking into account the following:

(c) The extent to which the Financial Mechanism is contributing to gender sensitive approaches;

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 3/CP.4, 2/CP.12, 6/CP.13, 2/CP.16, 8/CP.19, 9/CP.20 and 1/CP.21,

Recognizing that the review of the Financial Mechanism should inform the replenishment processes of the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism,

1. Decides to adopt the updated guidelines for the sixth review of the Financial Mechanism contained in the annex;

2. Requests the Standing Committee on Finance to provide, in its report to the twentythird session of the Conference of the Parties (November 2017), expert input to the sixth review of the Financial Mechanism, with a view to the review being finalized by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-third session;

3. Invites Parties, observers and other interested international organizations, stakeholders and non-governmental organizations involved in the activities of the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism to submit, by 30 April 2017, their views on the sixth review of the Financial Mechanism based on the guidelines contained in the annex, for consideration by the Standing Committee on Finance in preparing its expert input to the review.

Annex

Updated guidelines for the sixth review of the Financial Mechanism

A. Objectives

1. In accordance with Article 11, paragraph 4, of the Convention, the objectives of the sixth review of the Financial Mechanism will be as follows:

(a) To review the Financial Mechanism and take appropriate measures regarding:

(i) Its conformity with the provisions of Article 11 of the Convention and the guidance provided by the Conference of the Parties (COP);

(ii) The effectiveness of the activities it funds in implementing the Convention;

(iii) Its effectiveness in providing financial resources on a grant or concessional basis, including for the transfer of technology, for the implementation of the Convention’s objective on the basis of the guidance provided by the COP;

(iv) Its effectiveness in providing resources to developing country Parties under Article 4, paragraph 3, of the Convention;

(v) The effectiveness of access modalities for developing countries;

(b) To examine consistency and complementarity between the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism, and between the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism and other sources of investment and financial flows, including:

(i) Examining relevant sources, channels and means of financing, as indicated in Article 11, paragraph 5, of the Convention, that would assist developing country Parties to contribute to the achievement of the objective of the Convention, in particular innovative means of financing, such as for the development of endogenous technologies in developing countries;

(ii) Examining the role of the Financial Mechanism in scaling up the level of resources;

(iii) Assessing enabling environments for catalysing investment in, and the transfer of, environmentally sound technologies that mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and for enhancing resilience to climate change.

B. Sources of information

2. The review shall draw upon, inter alia, the following sources of information:

(a) Information provided by Parties on their experiences regarding financial support provided and received in accordance with COP decisions;

(b) Annual guidance provided by the COP to the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism with regard to the conformity of their activities with the guidance provided by the COP;

(c) The annual reports of the Standing Committee on Finance (SCF) to the COP on its activities and relevant technical information produced by the committee such as the biennial assessments and overview of climate finance flows and outcomes of the SCF forums;

(d) The annual reports of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to the COP on its activities as an operating entity of the Financial Mechanism, including the information on the Least Developed Countries Fund and the Special Climate Change Fund, and other relevant GEF policy and information documents;

(e) The reports from the GEF Independent Evaluation Office;

(f) The annual reports of the Board of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) to the COP on its activities as an operating entity of the Financial Mechanism and other relevant GCF policy and information documents;

(g) The reports of the Adaptation Fund Board to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol and the outcomes of the reviews of the Adaptation Fund;

(h) The outcomes and reports of the United Nations processes, relevant bilateral and multilateral funding institutions and other intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations dealing with climate financing;

(i) Relevant reports on private-sector financing and investment for climate change activities;

(j) Technical papers and reports prepared by the secretariat at the request of the COP which are relevant to the financial needs of developing country Parties under the Convention;

(k) Information contained in the national communications of Parties to the Convention, technology needs assessments and national adaptation programmes of action;

(l) The reports of the in-session workshops on long-term finance;

(m) The biennial submissions from developed country Parties on their updated strategies and approaches for scaling up climate finance from 2014 to 2020, including any available information on quantitative and qualitative elements of a pathway;

(n) The reports of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group and the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention.

C. Criteria

3. The effectiveness of the Financial Mechanism will be assessed taking into account the following:

(a) The transparency of the decision-making processes of the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism;

(b) The level of stakeholder involvement;

(c) The extent to which the Financial Mechanism is contributing to gender-sensitive approaches;

(d) The adequacy and predictability, accessibility and timeliness and rate of disbursement of funds for activities in developing country Parties, including projects in the pipeline; 

(e) The responsiveness, efficiency and performance of the cycle for project/programme approval procedures of the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism;

(f) The amount of resources provided to developing country Parties, including financing for technical assistance and investment projects, and the mechanisms for country allocation, as well as the results and impacts achieved by the resources provided;

(g) The amount of finance leveraged, and modalities and ratios of co-financing and the use of financial instruments where applicable;

(h) The extent to which the resources provided are contributing to achieving the objective of the Convention;

(i) The sustainability of funded programmes, projects and operations in developing country Parties;

(j) The extent to which the Financial Mechanism is contributing to the country ownership of programmes and projects. 

Gender reference

Annex

Summary and recommendations by the Standing Committee on Finance on the 2018 Biennial Assessment and Overview of Climate Finance Flows 

IV. Recommendations

51. The SCF invites the COP to consider the following recommendations:

Chapter III (assessment)

(m) Encourage climate finance providers to improve tracking and reporting on gender-related aspects of climate finance, impact measuring and mainstreaming; 

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling Articles 4 and 11 of the Convention,

Also recalling decisions 1/CP.16, paragraph 112, and 2/CP.17, paragraphs 120 and 121, as well as decisions 5/CP.18, 7/CP.19, 6/CP.20, 6/CP.21, 8/CP.22 and 7/CP.23,

1. Welcomes with appreciation the report of the Standing Committee on Finance to the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-fourth session, taking note of the recommendations contained therein;

2. Endorses the workplan of the Standing Committee on Finance for 2019; 2 3. Welcomes with appreciation the 2018 Biennial Assessment and Overview of Climate Finance Flows of the Standing Committee on Finance, in particular the summary and recommendations as contained in the annex;

4. Encourages the Standing Committee on Finance to take into account the best available science in future biennial assessments and overviews of climate finance flows;

5. Requests the Standing Committee on Finance to use in the biennial assessment and overview of climate finance flows the established terminology in the provisions of the Convention and the Paris Agreement in relation to climate finance, where applicable;

6. Expresses its appreciation for the financial contributions provided by the Governments of Belgium, Germany, Norway, the Republic of Korea, Switzerland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as by the European Commission to support the work of the Standing Committee on Finance;

7. Welcomes the 2018 Forum of the Standing Committee on Finance on the topic of climate finance architecture with a focus on enhancing collaboration and seizing opportunities, and takes note of the summary report4 on the Forum;

8. Expresses its gratitude to the Governments of the Netherlands, Norway and the Republic of Korea for their support in ensuring the success of the 2018 Forum of the Standing Committee on Finance;

9. Welcomes the decision of the Standing Committee on Finance on the topic of its 2019 Forum, which will be climate finance and sustainable cities;

10. Requests the Standing Committee on Finance to map, every four years, as part of its biennial assessment and overview of climate finance flows, the available information relevant to Article 2, paragraph 1(c), of the Paris Agreement, including its reference to Article 9 thereof;

11. Encourages the Standing Committee on Finance to provide input to the technical paper of the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts on the sources of financial support;5

12. Confirms the mandates in Article 11, paragraph 3(d), of the Convention, and decisions 12/CP.2, 12/CP.3, 5/CP.19 and 1/CP.21;

13. Requests the Standing Committee on Finance to prepare, every four years, a report on the determination of the needs of developing country Parties related to implementing the Convention and the Paris Agreement, for consideration by the Conference of Parties, starting at its twenty-sixth session (November 2020), and the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement, starting at its third session (November 2020);

14. Also requests the Standing Committee on Finance, in preparing the report referred to in paragraph 13 above, to collaborate, as appropriate, with the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism, the subsidiary and constituted bodies, multilateral and bilateral channels, and observer organizations;

15. Further requests that the actions of the Standing Committee on Finance called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources; 16. Requests the Standing Committee on Finance to report to the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-fifth session (December 2019) on progress in implementing its workplan;

17. Also requests the Standing Committee on Finance to consider the guidance provided to it in other relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties.

Annex

Summary and recommendations by the Standing Committee on Finance on the 2018 Biennial Assessment and Overview of Climate Finance Flows 

IV. Recommendations

51. The SCF invites the COP to consider the following recommendations:

Chapter III (assessment)

(j) Invite Parties to strive for complementarity between climate finance and sustainable development by, inter alia, aligning climate finance with national climate change frameworks and priorities, as well as broader economic development policies and national budgetary planning;

(k) Encourage developing countries to take advantage of available resources through the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism to strengthen Advance unedited version 17 institutional capacity for programming their priority climate action, as well as tracking climate finance, effectiveness and impacts;

(l) Encourage developed countries and climate finance providers to continue to enhance country ownership and consider policies to balance funding for adaptation and mitigation, taking into account beneficiary country strategies, and, in line with the mandates, building on experiences, policies and practices of the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism, particularly the GCF;

(m) Encourage climate finance providers to improve tracking and reporting on gender-related aspects of climate finance, impact measuring and mainstreaming;

(n) Invite, as in the 2016 BA, multilateral climate funds, MDBs, other financial institutions and relevant international organizations to continue to advance work on tracking and reporting on impacts of mitigation and adaptation finance;

(o) Encourage all relevant United Nations agencies and international, regional and national financial institutions to provide information to Parties through the secretariat on how their development assistance and climate finance programmes incorporate climate-proofing and climate-resilience measures, in line with new available scientific information;

(p) Request the SCF, in preparing future BAs, to continue assessing available information on the alignment of climate finance with investment needs and plans related to Parties’ NDCs and national adaptation plans;

(q) Request the SCF, in preparing the 2020 BA, to take into consideration available information relevant to Article 2 of the Paris Agreement. 

 

 

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