Gender Mandates in Climate Policy

Before you start

In the last few years, the UNFCCC – the only one out of three Rio Conventions that lacked mandates on women’s rights and gender equality from the outset – has made major strides in integrating gender across all thematic areas in the negotiations. Most notable in recent years are the launch in 2014 of the Lima Work Programme on Gender and the integration of gender in the Paris Agreement as a preambular principle for all climate action, as well as in relation to adaptation and capacity building. Decisions have aimed to enhance gender equality via both policy and practice, encouraging gender balance in decision-making as well as responsiveness to gender issues in the development, implementation and monitoring of climate change policies and actions.

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Gender reference

1. Invites Parties to give active consideration to the nomination of women for elective posts in any body established under the Convention or the Kyoto Protocol;

2. Requests the secretariat to bring this decision to the attention of Parties whenever a vacancy arises for any elective post in any body established under the Convention or the Kyoto Protocol;

3. Requests the secretariat to maintain information on the gender composition of each body with elective posts established under the Convention or the Kyoto Protocol, and to bring this information to the attention of the Parties whenever such a vacancy occurs.

Elaborated language

 

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling the Beijing Declaration of the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women which recognizes that women’s empowerment and their full participation on the basis of equality in all spheres of society, including participation in decision-making processes and access to power, are fundamental for the achievement of equality, development and peace,

Recalling further that the Beijing Declaration called on governments, the United Nations system and regional and international institutions to contribute to the implementation of the Beijing Platform of Action,

Noting that improvement in the gender balance of officers elected to the bodies established under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol would be one such contribution to the implementation of the Beijing Platform of Action,

Having considered the need for Parties to take into account the need for more equitable representation of female and male officers elected to the bodies established under the Convention or the Kyoto Protocol,

Urging Parties to take the measures necessary to enable women to participate fully in all levels of decision making relevant to climate change,

  1. Invites Parties to give active consideration to the nomination of women for elective posts in any body established under the Convention or the Kyoto Protocol;
  2. Requests the secretariat to bring this decision to the attention of Parties whenever a vacancy arises for any elective post in any body established under the Convention or the Kyoto Protocol;
  3. Further requests the secretariat to maintain information on the gender composition of each body with elective posts established under the Convention or the Kyoto Protocol, and to bring this information to the attention of the Parties whenever such a vacancy occurs.

Gender reference

Reaffirming the key role that youth, women and civil society organizations play in the implementation of Article 6 of the Convention, […]

Having completed the intermediate review of the Doha work programme on Article 6 of the Convention,

Encourages Parties to continue to promote the systematic integration of gender sensitive and participatory education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information into all mitigation and adaptation activities implemented under the Convention, as well as under the Paris Agreement, including into the implementation of their nationally determined contributions and the formulation of long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies;

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling Articles 4 and 6 of the Convention,

Also recalling decisions 15/CP.18, 19/CP.20 and 15/CP.21,

Further recalling Article 12 of the Paris Agreement, which states that Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing climate change adaptation and mitigation actions under the Agreement,

Recognizing that ensuring the availability of sufficient financial and technical resources continues to be a challenge for the adequate implementation of Article 6 of the Convention for all Parties, particularly developing country Parties,

Reaffirming the key role that youth, women and civil society organizations play in the implementation of Article 6 of the Convention,

Acknowledging the valuable support provided by international organizations, including the members of the United Nations Alliance on Climate Change Education, Training and Public Awareness, in strengthening international cooperation to scale up all elements of Article 6 of the Convention, including through the implementation of regional, national and local projects,

Having completed the intermediate review of the Doha work programme on Article 6 of the Convention,

 

  1. Recognizes that progress has been made by Parties and other relevant stakeholders in planning, coordinating and implementing climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, as well as international cooperation on these matters;
  2. Encourages Parties to continue to promote the systematic integration of gender-sensitive and participatory education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information into all mitigation and adaptation activities implemented under the Convention, as well as under the Paris Agreement, including into the implementation of their nationally determined contributions and the formulation of long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies;
  3. Also encourages Parties to foster the participation of relevant stakeholders in all mitigation and adaptation activities implemented under the Convention;
  4. Urges Parties, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, academia, research institutions, the private sector, state and local governments and youth to continue to implement policies and activities pursuant to Article 6 of the Convention;
  5. Invites Parties to enhance cross-sectoral coordination among all ministries dealing with climate change and ministries with responsibilities for education, training, public awareness and international cooperation;
  1. Encourages Parties to submit information as part of their national communications, and where possible in other reporting under the Convention, on their actions taken to implement the Doha work programme on Article 6 of the Convention and to share their experiences and best practices for the purpose of reviewing the Doha work programme in 2020, noting that the six elements of Article 6 of the Convention provide a useful guide for such reporting;
  2. Also encourages Parties that have not already done so to designate a national focal point for Article 6 of the Convention and to inform the secretariat accordingly;
  3. Welcomes the initiative of the Government of Morocco, as the host of the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties and the twelfth session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, to organize an education day during those sessions;
  4. Encourages the presidencies of subsequent sessions to hold similar thematic events related to Article 6 of the Convention to that referred to in paragraph 8 above;
  5. Invites multilateral and bilateral institutions and organizations, including operating entities of the Financial Mechanism, to provide, or to continue to provide, financial resources to support activities related to the implementation of Article 6 of the Convention;
  6. Requests the Global Environment Facility to continue to provide financial resources to Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention, in particular African countries, the least developed countries and small island developing States, in order to support activities related to the implementation of Article 6 of the Convention;
  7. Invites relevant international organizations, including United Nations organizations, such as the members of the United Nations Alliance on Climate Change Education, Training and Public Awareness, and the United Nations regional commissions, to continue supporting Parties and stakeholders in the implementation of the Doha work programme by:

 

  1. Organizing regional and subregional multi-stakeholder workshops on Article 6 of the Convention to facilitate a regular exchange of views, good practices and lessons learned;
  2. Providing technical and financial support for enhancing the implementation of the Doha work programme;
  3. Supporting  the  development  of  national  strategies  on  Article  6  of  the Convention;
  4. Disseminating information and resource materials, as well as good practices, on the six elements of Article 6 of the Convention;

 

  1. Requests the secretariat:

 

  1. To continue facilitating a regular exchange of views, good practices and lessons learned among the national focal points for Article 6 of the Convention;
  2. To organize workshops, videoconferences and activities at the international and regional levels in order to build and strengthen the existing skills and capacity of the national focal points for Article 6 of the Convention, taking into account opportunities to integrate such efforts into workshops held by relevant bodies under the Convention;
  3. To explore ways to develop linkages, synergies and alignment with technical assistance activities being organized in the context of the work of relevant bodies under the Convention, including the in-session Dialogues on Action for Climate Empowerment;
  1. To continue collaborating with admitted observer organizations, other stakeholders and international organizations, such as the members of the United Nations Alliance on Climate Change Education, Training and Public Awareness, with a view to catalysing further action in fulfilment of Article 6 of the Convention;
  2. To continue its work on the United Nations Joint Framework Initiative on Children, Youth and Climate Change in order to enhance the involvement and participation of youth in activities related to Article 6 of the Convention;
  3. To cease the maintenance and development of the climate change information network clearing house CC:iNet and to integrate its featured content into other UNFCCC web-based resources and communication activities, including the UNFCCC website, the UNFCCC Newsroom and multiple UNFCCC social media outlets, as a way to enhance the implementation of Article 6 of the Convention;
  4. To continue to collect the contact details of the nominated national focal points for Article 6 of the Convention and to update the designated UNFCCC web page;
  5. To organize, in collaboration with the Government of Morocco, a multi-stakeholder education day to showcase and galvanize good practices in implementing the Doha work programme;

 

  1. Decides that efforts related to the implementation of Article 6 of the Convention shall be referred to as Action for Climate Empowerment;
  2. Takes note of the estimated budgetary implications of the activities to be undertaken by the secretariat referred to in paragraph 13 above;
  3. Requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources.

Gender reference

This decision states that the preparation of NAPAs must be guided by gender equality.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recognizing the specific needs and special situations of the least developed countries referred to in Article 4, paragraph 9, of the Convention,

Recognizing further that many of the least developed country Parties do not have the capacity to prepare and submit national communications in the foreseeable future, or to convey their urgent and immediate needs in respect of their vulnerability and adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change,

Recognizing also that information contained in national adaptation programmes of action may constitute the first step in the preparation of initial national communications, and would help to build capacity for addressing urgent and immediate adaptation needs, as well as for the preparation of national communications;

  1. Decides to adopt the guidelines for the preparation of national adaptation programmes of action included in the annex to the present decision;
  2. Invites Parties to make submissions with a view to improving the guidelines, by 15 July 2002, for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its seventeenth session;
  3. Decides to review, and if necessary revise, the guidelines at its eighth session, taking into account the views submitted by Parties and the least developed countries expert group established under decision 29/CP.7;

Invites least developed country Parties to use the above-mentioned guidelines, in accordance with their national circumstances, in preparing their national adaptation programmes of action.

ANNEX

Guidelines for the preparation of national adaptation programmes of action

                                                            A. Introduction

  1. National adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs) will communicate priority activities addressing the urgent and immediate needs and concerns of the least developed countries (LDCs), relating to adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change.
  2. The rationale for developing NAPAs rests on the low adaptive capacity of LDCs, which renders them in need of immediate and urgent support to start adapting to current and projected adverse effects of climate change. Activities proposed through NAPAs would be those whose further delay could increase vulnerability, or lead to increased costs at a later stage.
  3. The NAPA will be presented in the form of a document specifying a list of priority activities, with a concise justification based on a tight set of criteria.
  4. The NAPA document will not be an end in itself, but rather a means for the dissemination, by an LDC Party, of its proposed programme of action to address its urgent needs for adaptation. The priority activities identified through the NAPA process will be made available to the entity that will operate the LDC fund referred to in decision 7/CP.7, paragraph 6, and other sources of funding, for the provision of financial resources to implement these activities.

                                                            B. Objective of NAPAs

      5. National adaptation programmes of action will serve as simplified and direct channels of communication for information relating to the urgent and immediate adaptation needs of the LDCs.

                                                           C. Characteristics of NAPAs

       6.National adaptation programmes of action should:

  1. Be easy to understand;
  2. Be action-oriented and country-driven;
  3. Set clear priorities for urgent and immediate adaptation activities as identified by the countries.

                                                            D. Guiding elements

  1. The preparation of NAPAs will be guided by the following:
    1. A participatory process involving stakeholders, particularly local communities;
    2. A multidisciplinary approach;
    3. A complementary approach, building upon existing plans and programmes, including national action plans under the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, national biodiversity strategies and action plans under the Convention on Biological Diversity, and national sectoral policies;
    4. Sustainable development;
    5. Gender equality;
    6. A country-driven approach;
    7. Sound environmental management;
    8. Cost-effectiveness;
    9. Simplicity;
    10. Flexibility of procedures based on individual country circumstances.

                                                              E. Process

  1. The preparation of the NAPA may proceed as follows:
    1. The setting up of a national NAPA team: the national climate change focal point will set up a NAPA team composed of a lead agency and representatives of stakeholders including government agencies and civil society. This group would be constituted using an open and flexible process that will be inclusive and transparent. The NAPA team will be responsible for preparing the NAPA and coordinating the implementation of NAPA activities;
    2. The NAPA team will assemble a multidisciplinary team:
      1. To synthesize available information on adverse effects of climate change and coping strategies, which would be collated and reviewed, including the national strategies for sustainable development, the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries, the United Nations development assistance frameworks, and poverty reduction strategy papers, if available in the countries;
      2. To conduct a participatory assessment of vulnerablity to current climate variability and extreme weather events, and to assess where climate change is causing increases in associated risks;To identify key climate-change adaptation measures, based, to the extent possible, on vulnerability and adaptation assessment; such measures would also be responsive to needs identified under other relevant processes, such as the preparation of national action plans under the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and national biodiversity strategies and action plans under the Convention on Biological Diversity;
      3. To identify key climate-change adaptation measures, based, to the extent possible, on vulnerability and adaptation assessment; such measures would also be responsive to needs identified under other relevant processes, such as the preparation of national action plans under the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and national biodiversity strategies and action plans under the Convention on Biological Diversity;
      4. To identify and prioritize country-driven criteria for selecting priority activities to address needs arising from the adverse effects of climate change, drawing on the criteria referred to in section F.4 below.
  1. Development of proposals for priority activities to address needs arising from the adverse effects of climate change: the national team will:
  1. Organize a national and/or subnational consultative process to solicit inputs and proposal ideas in order to help develop a short list of potential NAPA activities. The national team would facilitate this consultative process, and would help in translating ideas into activities. This process will allow adequate dialogue between the national team and the public, with time allowed for public comment and revisions;
  1. Identify potential activities, which may include capacity building and policy reform, and which may be integrated into sectoral and other policies;
    1. Select and identify priority activities, based on the agreed criteria;
    2. Propose profiles of priority activities using the following format:
      • Title
      • Rationale/justification in relation to climate change, including sectors concerned
      • Description
        • Objectives and activities
        • Inputs
        • Short-term outputs
        • Potential long-term outcomes
      • Implementation
        • Institutional arrangement
        • Risks and barriers
        • Evaluation and monitoring
        • Financial resources
  1. The development of the NAPA document: the document will be prepared following the structure set out in section F below;
  1. Public review and revision: the NAPA document will undergo public review and be revised accordingly;
  2. The final review process: the NAPA document, including the profiles, will be reviewed by a team of government and civil society representatives, including the private sector, who may take into consideration any advice solicited from the Least Developed Countries Expert Group;
  3. National government endorsement of the NAPA: after the NAPA has been prepared, it will be submitted to the national government for endorsement.
  4. Public dissemination: the endorsed NAPA document will be made available to the public and to the UNFCCC secretariat.

                                                                 F. Structure of NAPA document

  1. Introduction and setting
  1. This introductory section will include background information about the country that is relevant to the NAPA process. It will cover current characteristics, key environmental stresses, and how climate change and climate variability adversely affect biophysical processes and key sectors.

 

  1. Framework for adaptation programme
  2. This section will also provide an overview of climate variability and observed and projected climate change and associated actual and potential adverse effects of climate change. This overview will be based on existing and ongoing studies and research, and/or empirical and historical information as well as traditional knowledge.
  3. This section will describe the NAPA framework and its relationship to the country’s development goals, as described in subparagraph 8(b)(i) above, to make the framework consistent with socio-economic and development needs. In addition, it would also describe the goals, objectives and strategies of the NAPA, taking into account other plans and multilateral environmental agreements.
  4. Where possible, a description of the potential barriers to implementation should also be included.

 

  1. Identification of key adaptation needs
  2. Based on this overview and framework, past and current practices for adaptation to climate change and climate variability will be identified as related to existing information regarding the country’s vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change, climate variability and extreme weather events, as well as long-term climate change. This section will explain how and to what extent activities may address specific vulnerabilities.
  3. Given the actual and potential adverse effects of climate change described in section F.2 above, this section will identify relevant adaptation options including capacity building, policy reform, integration into sectoral policies and project-level activities.

 

  1. Criteria for selecting priority activities
  2. A set of locally-driven criteria will be used to select priority adaptation activities. These criteria should include, inter alia:
    1. Level or degree of adverse effects of climate change;
    2. Poverty reduction to enhance adaptive capacity;
    3. Synergy with other multilateral environmental agreements;
    4. Cost-effectiveness.
  3. These criteria for prioritization will be applied to, inter alia:
    1. Loss of life and livelihood;
    2. Human health;
    3. Food security and agriculture;
    4. Water availability, quality and accessibility;
    5. Essential infrastructure;
    6. Cultural heritage;
    7. Biological diversity;
    8. Land-use management and forestry;
    9. Other environmental amenities;
    10. Coastal zones, and associated loss of land.

 

  1. List of priority activities
  1. This section will list priority climate-change adaptation activities that have been selected based on the criteria listed in section F.4 above.
  2. For each of the selected priority activities a set of profiles will be developed for inclusion in the NAPA document. This could follow the format set out in subparagraph 8(c)(iv) above.

 

  1. NAPA preparation process
  2. This section will describe the NAPA development process, including the process of consultation, the methods for evaluation and monitoring, the institutional arrangements, and the mechanism of endorsement by the national government.

 

Gender reference

As part of the guidance on systems for providing information on how safeguards are addressed and respected, this decision agrees that these systems should respect gender considerations.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 2/CP.13, 4/CP.15 and 1/CP.16,

Recalling also decision 1/CP.16, paragraphs 69–71 and appendices I and II,

Noting that guidance on systems for providing information on how safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16 are addressed and respected should be consistent with national sovereignty, national legislation and national circumstances,

Recognizing the importance and necessity of adequate and predictable financial and technology support for developing all of the elements referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71,

Being aware of the need for any modalities for the construction of forest reference levels and forest emission reference levels to be flexible so as to accommodate national circumstances and capabilities, while pursuing environmental integrity and avoiding perverse incentives,

I. Guidance on systems for providing information on how safeguards are addressed and respected

1. Notes that the implementation of the safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16, and information on how these safeguards are being addressed and respected, should support national strategies or action plans and be included in, where appropriate, all phases of implementation referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 73, of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 of the same decision;

2. Agrees that systems for providing information on how the safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16 are addressed and respected should, taking into account national circumstances and respective capabilities, and recognizing national sovereignty and legislation, and relevant international obligations and agreements, and respecting gender considerations:

  • (a) Be consistent with the guidance identified in decision 1/CP.16, appendix I, paragraph 1;
  • (b) Provide transparent and consistent information that is accessible by all relevant stakeholders and updated on a regular basis;
  • (c) Be transparent and flexible to allow for improvements over time;
  • (d) Provide information on how all of the safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16 are being addressed and respected;
  • (e) Be country-driven and implemented at the national level;
  • (f) Build upon existing systems, as appropriate;

3. Agrees also that developing country Parties undertaking the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, should provide a summary of information on how all of the safeguards referred to in decision 1/CP.16, appendix I, are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of the activities;

4. Decides that the summary of information referred to in paragraph 3 above should be provided periodically and be included in national communications, consistent with relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties on guidelines on national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention, or communication channels agreed by the Conference of the Parties;

5. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, at its thirtysixth session, to consider the timing of the first presentation and the frequency of subsequent presentations of the summary of information referred to in paragraph 3 above, with a view to recommending a decision on this matter for adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth session;

6. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, at its thirty-sixth session, to consider the need for further guidance to ensure transparency, consistency, comprehensiveness and effectiveness when informing on how all safeguards are addressed and respected and, if appropriate, to consider additional guidance, and to report to the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth session;

II. Modalities for forest reference emission levels and forest reference levels

7. Agrees that, in accordance with decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71(b), forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year are benchmarks for assessing each country’s performance in implementing the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70;

8. Decides that forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, in accordance with decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71(b), shall be established taking into account decision 4/CP.15, paragraph 7, and maintaining consistency with anthropogenic forestrelated greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks as contained in each country’s greenhouse gas inventories;

9. Invites Parties to submit information and rationale on the development of their forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, including details of national circumstances and if adjusted include details on how the national circumstances were considered, in accordance with the guidelines contained in the annex to this decision and any future decision by the Conference of the Parties;

10. Agrees that a step-wise approach to national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level development may be useful, enabling Parties to improve the forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level by incorporating better data, improved methodologies and, where appropriate, additional pools, noting the importance of adequate and predictable support as referenced by decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71;

11. Acknowledges that subnational forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels may be elaborated as an interim measure, while transitioning to a national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level, and that interim forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels of a Party may cover less than its entire national territory of forest area;

12. Agrees that a developing country Party should update a forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level periodically as appropriate, taking into account new knowledge, new trends and any modification of scope and methodologies;

13. Invites developing country Parties, on a voluntary basis and when deemed appropriate, to submit proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, in accordance with decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71(b), accompanied by the information referred to in paragraph 9 above;

14. Requests the secretariat to make available information on forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels on the UNFCCC REDD web platform, including submissions with proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels;

15. Agrees to establish a process that enables technical assessment of the proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels when submitted or updated by Parties in accordance with paragraph 12 above and in accordance with guidance to be developed by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice at its thirtysixth session.

Annex

Guidelines for submissions of information on reference levels

Each developing country Party aiming to undertake the actions listed in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, should include in its submission information that is transparent, complete, consistent with guidance agreed by the Conference of the Parties (COP) and accurate information for the purpose of allowing a technical assessment of the data, methodologies and procedures used in the construction of a forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. The information provided should be guided by the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidance and guidelines, as adopted or encouraged by the COP, as appropriate, and include:

  • (a) Information that was used by Parties in constructing a forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level, including historical data, in a comprehensive and transparent way;
  • (b) Transparent, complete, consistent and accurate information, including methodological information, used at the time of construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, including, inter alia, as appropriate, a description of data sets, approaches, methods, models, if applicable and assumptions used, descriptions of relevant policies and plans, and descriptions of changes from previously submitted information; (c) Pools and gases, and activities listed in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, which have been included in forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels and the reasons for omitting a pool and/or activity from the construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, noting that significant pools and/or activities should not be excluded;
  • (d) The definition of forest used in the construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels and, if appropriate, in case there is a difference with the definition of forest used in the national greenhouse gas inventory or in reporting to other international organizations, an explanation of why and how the definition used in the construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels was chosen.

Gender reference

Decides to extend the Lima Work Programme on Gender (LWPG) for a period of three years, to be reviewed at COP25 in 2019. The Decision takes forward many of the activities that were part of the initial work programme including, a) training for delegates on gender and climate change; b) capacity building/negotiation skills for women delegates; c) a set of in-session workshops in 2018 & 2019; and d) technical guidance on entry points related to gender across other bodies of the UNFCCC. It advances the work through newer actions, such as: e) requesting both technical bodies and Parties, as well as the Financial mechanism, to enhance communications and reporting on progress implementing gender-responsive climate policy; f) requesting that a gender perspective be considered in the organization of the technical expert meetings on mitigation and adaptation; and g) inviting Parties to appoint and provide support for a national gender focal point for climate negotiations, implementation and monitoring. Finally, in order to drive the work of the LWPG, Parties agreed to the development of a ‘Gender Action Plan’.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 36/CP.7, 1/CP.16, 23/CP.18, 18/CP.20 and 1/CP.21 and the Paris Agreement,

Underscoring the importance of coherence between gender-responsive climate policies and the balanced participation of women and men in the Convention process and the provisions of international instruments and outcomes such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,

Noting that, notwithstanding the progress made by Parties in implementing the decisions referred to above, there is a need for women to be represented in all aspects of the Convention process, including through membership of their national delegations and the chairing and facilitation of formal and informal negotiating groups,

Acknowledging with appreciation the important role of the two-year Lima work programme on gender in the incorporation of a gender perspective in the work of the Parties and the secretariat in implementing the Convention,

Noting with appreciation the contributions received in support of the work undertaken so far, Also noting that gender-responsive climate policy still requires further strengthening in all activities concerning adaptation, mitigation and related means of implementation (finance, technology development and transfer and capacity-building) as well as decisionmaking on the implementation of climate policies,

1. Welcomes the report by the secretariat on the in-session workshop on genderresponsive climate policy with a focus on adaptation, capacity-building and training for delegates on gender issues, which was held during the forty-fourth sessions of the subsidiary bodies;

2. Notes with appreciation the submissions from Parties and observers as input for the workshop referred to in paragraph 1 above;

3. Takes note of the report by the secretariat on the gender composition of constituted bodies established under the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol, and the urgent need to improve the representation of women in all of the bodies established under the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement;

4. Urges Parties to enhance their efforts in advancing the implementation of decisions 36/CP.7, 1/CP.16, 23/CP.18 and 18/CP.20; 

5. Takes note of the submissions from Parties and observers on possible elements and guiding principles for continuing and enhancing the Lima work programme on gender, including information from Parties on progress made towards achieving the goals of gender balance and gender-responsive climate policy in response to the invitation contained in decision 18/CP.20, paragraph 1;

6. Decides to continue and enhance the Lima work programme on gender for a period of three years as set out in paragraphs 7–30 below and to undertake, at the twenty-fifth session of the Conference of the Parties (November 2019), a review of the work programme;

7. Invites Parties to continue to assist: (a) Training and awareness-raising for female and male delegates on issues related to gender balance and climate change; (b) Building the skills and capacity of their female delegates to participate effectively in UNFCCC meetings through training on, inter alia, negotiation skills, the drafting of legal documents and strategic communication;

8. Also invites Parties and relevant organizations to continue to assist the activities referred to in paragraph 7 above, with a special focus on training and capacity-building for delegates from Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change; 9. Requests the secretariat to continue to support the organization of the training and capacity-building efforts referred to in paragraphs 7 and 8 above, inter alia, in conjunction with sessions of the subsidiary bodies;

10. Invites Parties to increase the representation and active participation of women in the bodies established under the Convention;

11. Decides that annual in-session workshops will be held in conjunction with the sessions of the subsidiary bodies in the first sessional period of 2018 and 2019;

12. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to elaborate the topics for the workshops referred to in paragraph 11 above during 2017 and to report on the topics that it recommends for the workshops to the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-third session (November 2017);

13. Also requests the secretariat to prepare a technical paper identifying entry points for integrating gender considerations in workstreams under the UNFCCC process for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its forty-eighth session (April– May 2018);

14. Further requests all constituted bodies under the UNFCCC process to include in their regular reports information on progress made towards integrating a gender perspective in their processes according to the entry points identified in the technical paper referred to in paragraph 13 above;

15. Requests the secretariat to prepare biennial synthesis reports on the information contained in the reports referred to in paragraph 14 above for consideration by the Conference of the Parties, with the first biennial synthesis report to be prepared for the consideration of the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-fifth session (November 2019);

16. Encourages Parties and the secretariat to take into consideration a gender perspective in the organization of the technical expert meetings on mitigation and adaptation, in accordance with decision 1/CP.21, paragraphs 111 and 129;

17. Invites Parties to mainstream a gender perspective in the enhancement of climate technology development and transfer;

18. Requests the secretariat, if updating the accreditation process for the Parties, to improve, as appropriate, the accuracy of data on the gender of the participants as a means of providing accurate data to assess progress made on the participation of women delegates in UNFCCC meetings and those of constituted bodies;

19. Also requests the secretariat to continue to prepare an annual report on gender composition in accordance with decisions 23/CP.18 and 18/CP.20;

20. Further requests the secretariat to undertake research and analysis on challenges to the full and equal participation of women in climate-related processes and activities and to prepare a technical paper on achieving the goal of gender balance as mandated by decisions 36/CP.7, 1/CP.16 and 23/CP.18, based on submissions and its own research for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-third session;

21. Requests the Financial Mechanism and its operating entities to include in their respective annual reports to the Conference of the Parties information on the integration of gender considerations in all aspects of their work;

22. Invites Parties to appoint and provide support for a national gender focal point for climate negotiations, implementation and monitoring;

23. Encourages Parties, when reporting on their climate policies under the UNFCCC process, to include information on how they are integrating gender considerations into such policies;

24. Also encourages Parties to integrate local and traditional knowledge in the formulation of climate policy and to recognize the value of the participation of grassroots women in gender-responsive climate action at all levels;

25. Requests the secretariat to maintain and regularly update its web pages for sharing information on women’s participation and on gender-responsive climate policy;

26. Invites Parties and non-Party stakeholders to share information on their work related to integrating a gender perspective in the activities and work under the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement;

27. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to develop a gender action plan in order to support the implementation of gender-related decisions and mandates under the UNFCCC process, which may include priority areas, key activities and indicators, timelines for implementation, the responsible and key actors and indicative resource requirements for each activity, and further elaborate its process of review and monitoring;

28. Invites Parties, members of constituted bodies, United Nations organizations, observers and other stakeholders to consult through meetings, prior to the forty-sixth sessions of the subsidiary bodies (May 2017), in order to provide inputs to the formulation of the gender action plan referred to in paragraph 27 above;

29. Requests the secretariat to convene, in cooperation with Parties and interested observers and other stakeholders, an in-session workshop during the forty-sixth sessions of the subsidiary bodies to develop possible elements of the gender action plan referred to in paragraph 27 above for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its forty-seventh session (November 2017);

30. Invites submissions from Parties, observers and other stakeholders, by 25 January 2017, on their views on the matters to be addressed at the in-session workshop referred to in paragraph 29 above; 

31. Takes note of the estimated budgetary implications of the activities to be undertaken by the secretariat referred to in this decision;

32. Requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources;

33. Invites Parties and relevant organizations to participate and engage in implementing gender-related activities within the work programme.

9 th plenary meeting

17 November 2016

Gender reference

Encourages Parties to give active consideration to the nomination of women as members and alternate members of the Executive Board of the CDM in accordance with decision 36/CP.7, paragraph 6.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol,

Recalling the provisions of Articles 3 and 12 of the Kyoto Protocol,

Cognizant of decisions 7/CMP.1, 1/CMP.2, 2/CMP.3 and 2/CMP.4,

  1. General
  1. Takes note of the annual report for 2008–2009 of the Executive Board of the clean development mechanism;
  2. Designates as operational entities those entities that have been accredited, and provisionally designated, as operational entities by the Executive Board to carry out sector-specific validation functions and/or sector-specific verification functions as listed in the annex to this decision;
  3. Urges the Executive Board to take effective action to ensure compliance with established timelines for each of its procedures as well as with decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol and, where possible, to reduce the established timelines;
  4. Welcomes the measures adopted by the Executive Board to improve the efficiency of the operation of the clean development mechanism, as outlined in annex IV to its annual report;
  5. Requests the Executive Board to continue its efforts to improve the efficiency and impartiality of the operation of the clean development mechanism and strengthen its executive and supervisory role by, inter alia, ensuring effective use of its support structure, including its panels, other outside expertise and the secretariat, taking into consideration the increasing caseload, and to make recommendations on further improving and reforming the system and its efficiency and impartiality to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol for consideration at its sixth and subsequent sessions;
    1. Governance
  6. Encourages Parties to give active consideration to the nomination of women as members and alternate members of the Executive Board, in accordance with decision 36/CP.7;
  7. Requests the Executive Board, as its highest priority, to continue to significantly improve transparency, consistency and impartiality in its work by, inter alia:
    1. Continuing its efforts to improve consistency in its decision-making;
    2. Publishing detailed explanations of and the rationale for decisions taken, including sources of information used, without compromising the confidentiality of the opinion of any individual Executive Board member or alternate member;
    3. Taking into account input from relevant international organizations and Parties involved in addition to project participants and the designated operational entities in its decision-making process;
  1. Requests the Executive Board to enhance its communications with project participants and stakeholders, including through the establishment of modalities and procedures for direct communication between the Executive Board and project participants in relation to individual projects, and to report on actions taken to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol at its sixth session;
  2. Requests the Executive Board to take fully into account, in its work and in the work of its support structure, the laws, regulations, policies, standards and guidelines that apply in the host countries, and in case of need seek inputs from designated national authorities of the host countries;
  3. Affirms that it is the prerogative of the host country to decide on the design and implementation of policies to promote or give competitive advantage to low greenhouse gas emitting fuels or technologies;
  4. Requests the Executive Board to ensure that its rules and guidelines related to the introduction or implementation of the policies referred to in paragraph 10 above promote the achievement of the ultimate objective of the Convention and do not create perverse incentives for emission reduction efforts;
  5. Requests the Executive Board to consolidate, clarify and revise, as appropriate, its guidance on the treatment of national policies;
  6. Acknowledges that the Executive Board has adopted a code of conduct for its members;
  7. Requests the Executive Board to recommend terms of reference for membership of the Executive Board that clarify the desired set of skills and expertise as well as the expected time commitment required of members and alternate members, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol at its sixth session;
  8. Requests that the curricula vitae of Executive Board members, statements on conflicts of interest and details of any past and current professional affiliations of members be published on the UNFCCC CDM website;
    1. Accreditation
  9. Encourages the Executive Board to continue to develop measures to enhance the impartiality, independence and technical competence of designated operational entities and to develop arrangements to protect from undue prejudice proposed clean development mechanism project activities that are undergoing validation and verification by a designated operational entity that has lost its accreditation status or had this status suspended;
  10. Reiterates its request to the Executive Board to develop and apply, as a priority, a system for continuous monitoring of the performance of designated operational entities and a system to improve the performance of these entities and to report on the implementation of these systems to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol at its sixth session;
  11. Requests the Executive Board to improve access to information on the performance of designated operational entities, including through improved reporting on performance, capacity and accessibility of services of these entities;
  12. Requests the Executive Board to adopt measures to increase capacity and improve performance of designated operational entities, including systems to promote improved levels of training for auditors involved in validating and verifying activities;
  1. Requests the Executive Board to adopt a procedure for designated operational entities to provide the secretariat with information on the number of project activities under validation or verification per qualified auditor, and the time frames and average fees for the validation and verification of clean development mechanism project activities hosted in developing countries, divided by region;
  2. Requests the secretariat to prepare a compilation of this information without attribution for publication on the UNFCCC CDM website;
  3. Requests the Executive Board to continue to update the Clean Development Mechanism Validation and Verification Manual, including by further exploring the possible introduction of the concepts of materiality and the level of assurance, and to report to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol at its sixth session;

IV. Baseline and monitoring methodologies and additionality

  1. Authorizes the Executive Board to prioritize, informed by an analysis of the potential use of methodologies and potential for emission reductions, the consideration and development of baseline and monitoring methodologies that are applicable to under-represented project activity types or regions, in order to improve the efficiency of operation of the methodologies processes;
  2. Requests the Executive Board, starting at its next meeting, to further work and report to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on the enhancement of objectivity and transparency in the approaches for demonstration and assessment of additionality and selection of the baseline scenario by means of the following activities:
    1. Further development of guidelines for demonstration and assessment of barriers and of standardized methods to calculate financial parameters;
    2. Development of guidance for project participants on the use of a first-of-its-kind barrier and the assessment of common practice, including the definition of the applicable region, similar technologies and thresholds for penetration rates;
    3. Establishment of simplified modalities for demonstrating additionality for project activities up to 5 megawatts that employ renewable energy as their primary technology and for energy efficiency project activities that aim to achieve energy savings at a scale of no more than 20 gigawatt hours per year;
    4. Development of guidance for the treatment of feed-in tariffs in the additionality analysis for renewable energy project activities;
  3. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to recommend modalities and procedures for the development of standardized baselines that are broadly applicable, while providing for a high level of environmental integrity and taking into account specific national circumstances, and to forward a draft decision on this matter to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol at its sixth session;
  4. Invites Parties, intergovernmental organizations and admitted observer organizations to make submissions to the secretariat, by 22 March 2010, on their views on the matter referred to in paragraph 25 above;
  5. Requests the secretariat to compile the views submitted by Parties and intergovernmental organizations in accordance with paragraph 26 above into a miscellaneous document for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice at its thirty-second session;
  1. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to assess the implications of the recommendation regarding “forests in exhaustion”, as contained in annex I to the annual report of the Executive Board;
  2. Recognizes the importance of carbon dioxide capture and storage in geological formations as a possible mitigation technology, bearing in mind the concerns related to the following outstanding issues, inter alia:
    1. Non-permanence, including long-term permanence;
    2. Measuring, reporting and verification;
    3. Environmental impacts;
    4. Project activity boundaries;
    5. International law;
    6. Liability;
    7. The potential for perverse outcomes;
    8. Safety;
    9. Insurance coverage and compensation for damages caused due to seepage or leakage;
  3. Further requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to continue to work on the possible inclusion of carbon dioxide capture and storage in geological formations in the clean development mechanism by working on the issues listed in paragraph 29 above, with a view to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol adopting a decision on this matter at its sixth session;
  4. Invites Parties to make submissions to the secretariat, by 22 March 2010, on their views on the issues listed in paragraph 29 above;
  5. Requests the secretariat to compile the views submitted by Parties in accordance with paragraph 31 above into a miscellaneous document for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice at its thirty-second session;
  6. Invites interested entities to submit methodologies, considering the current work of the Executive Board and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, on new technologies that have the potential to reduce in net terms the concentration of carbon or carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere;
  7. Requests the Executive Board to further improve the “Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system” for project activities hosted in countries with a paucity of relevant data, including by providing flexibility for the calculation of grid emission factors;
  8. Encourages the Executive Board to further explore the possibility of including in baseline and monitoring methodologies, as appropriate, a scenario where future anthropogenic emissions by sources are projected to rise above current levels due to specific circumstances of the host Party;

V. Registration of clean development mechanism project activities and issuance of certified emission reductions

  1. Requests the Executive Board to continue to revise the relevant procedures and guidance on programmes of activities, including by defining more clearly the situations in which designated operational entities could be held liable for erroneous inclusion of a component project activity, in order to reduce barriers to the development of programmes of activities under the clean development mechanism;
  2. Also requests the Executive Board to adopt as soon as possible, and subsequently apply on an interim basis, revised procedures for registration, issuance and review, under which alternative timelines to those defined in decision 3/CMP.1, annex, paragraphs 41 and 65, and decision 4/CMP.1, annex II, paragraph 24, can be applied;
  3. Revokes annexes III and IV to decision 4/CMP.1 containing the existing procedures for review;
  4. Requests the Executive Board to ensure that the revised procedures for review:
    1. Provide designated operational entities and project participants with adequate opportunity to address issues raised in reviews;
    2. Include an independent technical assessment of the analysis conducted by the secretariat;
    3. Include a process for the Executive Board to consider objections raised by members of the Executive Board to outcomes of assessments;
    4. Ensure efficient and timely consideration of registration and issuance requests;
  5. Also requests the Executive Board to continue applying its existing procedures for registration, issuance and review until the revised procedures referred to in paragraph 39 above are adopted by the Executive Board;
  6. Further requests the Executive Board to report to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol at its sixth session on the revised procedures and the impact of their interim implementation, with a view to adoption of the revised procedures by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol at that session;
  7. Requests the Executive Board to establish, following consultation with stakeholders, procedures for considering appeals that are brought by stakeholders directly involved, defined in a conservative manner, in the design, approval or implementation of clean development mechanism project activities or proposed clean development mechanism project activities, in relation to:
    1. Situations where a designated operational entity may not have performed its duties in accordance with the rules or requirements of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol and/or the Executive Board;
    2. Rulings taken by or under the authority of the Executive Board in accordance with the procedures referred to in paragraph 39 above regarding the rejection or alteration of requests for registration or issuance;

43. Requests the Executive Board to design the procedures referred to in paragraph 42 above focusing on, but not limited to, ensuring due process and to report on implementation to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol at its sixth session;

VI. Regional and subregional distribution and capacity-building

  1. Welcomes the work of the Designated National Authorities Forum, which could contribute to broader participation in the clean development mechanism through, inter alia, the sharing of information and experience;
  2. Encourages the Executive Board to follow up on issues raised by the Designated National Authorities Forum between meetings of the Forum;
  3. Also encourages designated national authorities to publish the criteria they use in assessing the contribution of project activities to sustainable development;
  4. Decides to defer the payment of the registration fee until after the first issuance for countries with fewer than 10 registered clean development mechanism project activities;
  5. Requests the Executive Board to undertake the following measures for countries hosting fewer than 10 registered clean development mechanism project activities without compromising environmental integrity:
    1. Developing top-down methodologies that are particularly suited for application in these countries in accordance with principles and guidelines to be established by the Executive Board;
    2. Introducing a requirement that designated operational entities indicate the work they are undertaking on projects originated in these countries as part of their annual activity reports and ensure that this item be included in the subsequent synthesis report presented by the secretariat to the Executive Board for appropriate follow-up;
  6. Requests the Executive Board to allocate financial resources from the interest accrued on the principal of the Trust Fund for the Clean Development Mechanism, as well as any voluntary contributions from donors, in order to provide loans to support the following activities in countries with fewer than 10 registered clean development mechanism project activities:
    1. To cover the costs of the development of project design documents;
    2. To cover the costs of validation and the first verification for these project activities;
  7. Decides that the loans referred to in paragraph 49 above are to be repaid starting from the first issuance of certified emission reductions;
  8. Requests the Executive Board to recommend guidelines and modalities for operationalizing the activities outlined in paragraphs 49 and 50 above for consideration by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol at its sixth session;
  9. Also requests the secretariat to continue its work in facilitating coordination among partner agencies in the implementation of the Nairobi Framework;
  1. Encourages all Parties to continue cooperating bilaterally to develop and implement clean development mechanism project activities, and in particular to facilitate South–South cooperation and capacity transfer;
  2. Encourages designated operational entities to establish offices in developing countries in line with the provisions of the clean development mechanism accreditation standard in order to reduce the transaction costs for these countries and to contribute to a more equitable distribution of clean development mechanism project activities;
  3. Requests the secretariat to enhance its support to designated national authorities and the Designated National Authorities Forum by, inter alia:
    1. Providing training opportunities for clean development mechanism stakeholders on a continuous basis on the different elements of the clean development mechanism project cycle;
    2. Facilitating information exchange and awareness-raising at the regional and subregional levels;
    3. Developing and making publicly available studies on the potential of the clean development mechanism in the countries identified in paragraph 47 above, working in close cooperation with local authorities;
    4. Organizing subregional meetings of the Designated National Authorities Forum;

VII. Resources for work on the clean development mechanism

  1. Requests the secretariat to implement the staffing requirements in the management plan in an expeditious manner in order to support the work of the Executive Board;
  2. Requests the secretariat to improve its reporting on financial resources, including by providing a detailed breakdown of both income and expenditure, and by explaining the status of and rationale for financial reserves;
  3. Requests the secretariat to apply a flexible recruitment process to fill vacant positions established under the management plan of the Executive Board while ensuring that the principles of a fair and transparent process are upheld;
  4. Expresses its appreciation to the Government of Belgium and the European Commission for having provided financial resources in support of meetings of the Designated National Authorities Forum and to the Government of Sweden for having allowed additional participation by the least developed countries and small island developing States in the practitioners workshop held in Bonn, Germany, on 26 October 2009;
  5. Also expresses its appreciation to the Government of Grenada for hosting the forty-eighth meeting of the Executive Board from 15 to 17 July 2009 and to the Government of Singapore for hosting the eighth meeting of the Designated National Authorities Forum from 26 to 28 October 2009.

If you wish to read the full decision, including annexes, see the URL here.

Gender reference

Annex I

Information to facilitate clarity, transparency and understanding of nationally determined contributions, referred to in decision 1/CP.21, paragraph 28

4. Planning processes:

(a) Information on the planning processes that the Party undertook to prepare its nationally determined

contribution and, if available, on the Party’s implementation plans, including, as appropriate:

(i) Domestic institutional arrangements, public participation and engagement with

1. local communities and indigenous peoples, in a gender-responsive manner;

Elaborated language

Annex I

Information to facilitate clarity, transparency and understanding of nationally determined contributions, referred to in decision 1/CP.21, paragraph 28

1. Quantifiable information on the reference point (including, as appropriate, a base year):

(a) Reference year(s), base year(s), reference period(s) or other starting point(s);

(b) Quantifiable information on the reference indicators, their values in the reference year(s), base year(s), reference period(s) or other starting point(s), and, as applicable, in the target year;

(c) For strategies, plans and actions referred to in Article 4, paragraph 6, of the Paris Agreement, or polices and measures as components of nationally determined contributions where paragraph 1(b) above is not applicable, Parties to provide other relevant information;

(d) Target relative to the reference indicator, expressed numerically, for example in percentage or amount of reduction;

(e) Information on sources of data used in quantifying the reference point(s);

(f) Information on the circumstances under which the Party may update the values of the reference indicators.

2. Time frames and/or periods for implementation:

(a) Time frame and/or period for implementation, including start and end date, consistent with any further relevant decision adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA);

(b) Whether it is a single-year or multi-year target, as applicable.

3. Scope and coverage:

(a) General description of the target;

(b) Sectors, gases, categories and pools covered by the nationally determined contribution, including, as applicable, consistent with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines;

(c) How the Party has taken into consideration paragraphs 31(c) and (d) of decision 1/CP.21;

(d) Mitigation co-benefits resulting from Parties’ adaptation actions and/or economic diversification plans, including description of specific projects, measures and initiatives of Parties’ adaptation actions and/or economic diversification plans.

4. Planning processes:

(a) Information on the planning processes that the Party undertook to prepare its nationally determined contribution and, if available, on the Party’s implementation plans, including, as appropriate:

(i) Domestic institutional arrangements, public participation and engagement with local communities and indigenous peoples, in a gender-responsive manner;

(ii) Contextual matters, including, inter alia, as appropriate: 

a. National circumstances, such as geography, climate, economy, sustainable development and poverty eradication;

b. Best practices and experience related to the preparation of the nationally determined contribution;

c. Other contextual aspirations and priorities acknowledged when joining the Paris Agreement;

(b) Specific information applicable to Parties, including regional economic integration organizations and their member States, that have reached an agreement to act jointly under Article 4, paragraph 2, of the Paris Agreement, including the Parties that agreed to act jointly and the terms of the agreement, in accordance with Article 4, paragraphs 16– 18, of the Paris Agreement;

(c) How the Party’s preparation of its nationally determined contribution has been informed by the outcomes of the global stocktake, in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 9, of the Paris Agreement;

(d) Each Party with a nationally determined contribution under Article 4 of the Paris Agreement that consists of adaptation action and/or economic diversification plans resulting in mitigation co-benefits consistent with Article 4, paragraph 7, of the Paris Agreement to submit information on:

(i) How the economic and social consequences of response measures have been considered in developing the nationally determined contribution;

(ii) Specific projects, measures and activities to be implemented to contribute to mitigation co-benefits, including information on adaptation plans that also yield mitigation co-benefits, which may cover, but are not limited to, key sectors, such as energy, resources, water resources, coastal resources, human settlements and urban planning, agriculture and forestry; and economic diversification actions, which may cover, but are not limited to, sectors such as manufacturing and industry, energy and mining, transport and communication, construction, tourism, real estate, agriculture and fisheries.

5. Assumptions and methodological approaches, including those for estimating and accounting for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and, as appropriate, removals:

(a) Assumptions and methodological approaches used for accounting for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals corresponding to the Party’s nationally determined contribution, consistent with decision 1/CP.21, paragraph 31, and accounting guidance adopted by the CMA;

(b) Assumptions and methodological approaches used for accounting for the implementation of policies and measures or strategies in the nationally determined contribution;

(c) If applicable, information on how the Party will take into account existing methods and guidance under the Convention to account for anthropogenic emissions and removals, in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 14, of the Paris Agreement, as appropriate;

(d) IPCC methodologies and metrics used for estimating anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals;

(e) Sector-, category- or activity-specific assumptions, methodologies and approaches consistent with IPCC guidance, as appropriate, including, as applicable:

(i) Approach to addressing emissions and subsequent removals from natural disturbances on managed lands;

(ii) Approach used to account for emissions and removals from harvested wood products;

(iii) Approach used to address the effects of age-class structure in forests; 6 (f) Other assumptions and methodological approaches used for understanding the nationally determined contribution and, if applicable, estimating corresponding emissions and removals, including:

(i) How the reference indicators, baseline(s) and/or reference level(s), including, where applicable, sector-, category- or activity-specific reference levels, are constructed, including, for example, key parameters, assumptions, definitions, methodologies, data sources and models used;

(ii) For Parties with nationally determined contributions that contain nongreenhouse-gas components, information on assumptions and methodological approaches used in relation to those components, as applicable;

(iii) For climate forcers included in nationally determined contributions not covered by IPCC guidelines, information on how the climate forcers are estimated;

(iv) Further technical information, as necessary;

(g) The intention to use voluntary cooperation under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, if applicable.

6. How the Party considers that its nationally determined contribution is fair and ambitious in the light of its national circumstances:

(a) How the Party considers that its nationally determined contribution is fair and ambitious in the light of its national circumstances;

(b) Fairness considerations, including reflecting on equity;

(c) How the Party has addressed Article 4, paragraph 3, of the Paris Agreement;

(d) How the Party has addressed Article 4, paragraph 4, of the Paris Agreement;

(e) How the Party has addressed Article 4, paragraph 6, of the Paris Agreement.

7. How the nationally determined contribution contributes towards achieving the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2:

(a) How the nationally determined contribution contributes towards achieving the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2;

(b) How the nationally determined contribution contributes towards Article 2, paragraph 1(a), and Article 4, paragraph 1, of the Paris Agreement.

Gender reference

Annex

Elements of an adaptation communication

(h) Gender-responsive adaptation action and information on traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems related to adaptation, where appropriate;

Elaborated language

Annex

Elements of an adaptation communication

An adaptation communication may include information on the following elements:

(a) National circumstances, institutional arrangements and legal frameworks;

(b) Impacts, risks and vulnerabilities, as appropriate;

(c) National adaptation priorities, strategies, policies, plans, goals and actions;

(d) Implementation and support needs of, and provision of support to, developing country Parties;

(e) Implementation of adaptation actions and plans, including:

(i) Progress and results achieved;

(ii) Adaptation efforts of developing countries for recognition;

(iii) Cooperation on enhancing adaptation at the national, regional and international level, as appropriate;

(iv) Barriers, challenges and gaps related to the implementation of adaptation;

(v) Good practices, lessons learned and information-sharing;

(vi) Monitoring and evaluation;

(f) Adaptation actions and/or economic diversification plans, including those that result in mitigation co-benefits;

(g) How adaptation actions contribute to other international frameworks and/or conventions;

(h) Gender-responsive adaptation action and traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems related to adaptation, where appropriate; (i) Any other information related to adaptation.

Gender reference

The GEF secretariat is currently developing a Gender Action Plan to be presented to the GEF Council in October 2014.

In light of the provisions of its governing instrument to take a Fund-wide ‘gender-sensitive approach’, the GCF has committed to integrating gender considerations in its procedures and operational modalities, approving an initial results management framework with provisions for sex-disaggregated indicators, including initial criteria for assessing programmes and projects proposals that include gender aspects.

In developing its own approach to gender mainstreaming, the GCF could build on the experience of the GEF. It is recommended that gender equality be integrated in the structure and organisation of the GCF itself, and that gender sensitive criteria are taken into account in funding approvals of the fund.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 3/CP.4, 2.CP.12, 1/CP.16, 2/CP.16 and 8/CP.19,

Welcoming the progress made by the Board of the Green Climate Fund in operationalizing the Green Climate Fund,

Noting that the fifth review of the Financial Mechanism focused on the Global Environment Facility owing to the fact that the Green Climate Fund is still developing its operations and that therefore it was premature to review many aspects of the Green Climate Fund,

  1. Welcomes with appreciation the expert input to the fifth review of the Financial Mechanism provided by the Standing Committee on Finance, contained in the technical paper referred to in paragraph 3 below;
  2. Encourages the Standing Committee on Finance to build on the same methodology and criteria in future reviews of the Financial Mechanism;
  3. Acknowledges the executive summary of the technical paper on the fifth review1, as contained in the annex, including the conclusions and recommendations made by the Standing Committee on Finance;
  4. Encourages the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism to address, as appropriate, these recommendations in their future work, particularly with regard to the complementarity between the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism;
  5. Recognizes the general positive assessment of the performance of the Global Environment Facility;
  6. Notes, however, that the least developed countries and small island developing States still experience challenges in accessing the resources from the Global Environment Facility;
  7. Decides to consider the timing of guidance provided by the Conference of the Parties to the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism, especially that guidance which has resource implications vis-à-vis the replenishment cycles of the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism, in order to ensure that key guidance is fully considered in the programming strategies and policy recommendations associated with each replenishment period of the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism;
  8. Also decides to initiate the sixth review of the Financial Mechanism at its twenty-second session (November 2016), in accordance with the criteria contained in the guidelines annexed to decision 8/CP.19, or as these guidelines may be subsequently amended;
  9. Requests the Standing Committee on Finance to provide expert input to the sixth review of the Financial Mechanism in 2017 with a view to the review being completed by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-third session (November 2017).

Annex

Executive summary of the technical paper on the fifth review of the Financial Mechanism

  1. Background
    1. At its 6th meeting, the Standing Committee on Finance requested the secretariat to prepare a technical paper that will inform the Committee in its deliberations on the effectiveness of the Financial Mechanism and in the drafting of its expert inputs, which will be submitted to the Conference of the Parties (COP) at its twentieth session. The technical paper builds on the criteria for the review agreed by Parties at COP 19. These criteria have been grouped in the following clusters of issues: (i) governance; (ii) responsiveness to COP guidance; (iii) mobilization of financial resources; (iv) delivery of financial resources; (v) results and impacts achieved with the resources provided; (vi) consistency of the activities of the Financial Mechanism with the objectives of the Convention; (vii) consistency and complementarity of the Financial Mechanism with the other sources of investment and financial flows.
    2. This technical paper is informed by desk research and literature review of the sources of information identified in the updated guidelines, complemented with past decisions related to the Financial Mechanism as well as inputs from the secretariats of the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism. Interviews with the stakeholders of the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism were also undertaken in order to generate further information. Furthermore, the technical paper also benefited from information included in the 2014 biennial assessment and overview of financial flows prepared by the Standing Committee on Finance. As there was a time limitation, it was not possible to expand the research beyond the available literature and conduct surveys on an appropriate sample of recipient countries in order to complement the areas where updated information was not available. Such an approach, however, could be undertaken in preparing for the sixth review of the Financial Mechanism.
    3. The Standing Committee on Finance, having considered the technical paper, prepared this executive summary to form its expert input to the fifth review of the Financial Mechanism.

 

II. Key insights, conclusions and possible recommendations

  1. Governance
    1. Transparency of the decision-making process of the operating entities

 4. An independent assessment by Transparency International evaluated the decision-making process of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) as being fairly transparent and democratic to all its stakeholders. The stakeholders of the GEF include the Parties to the relevant Conventions, the COP, donors, civil society organizations and non-governmental organizations. Decisions of the GEF Assembly and the GEF Council are made by consensus, following consultation with stakeholders who have advance access to background documents, which are prepared for these two decision-making bodies. The meetings of the GEF Council are webcast and all Council documents and decisions are available online.

  1. While it was found that there is transparency at the level of the GEF Assembly and the GEF Council, Transparency International indicated that there remains room for

 

improvement with regard to transparency in information disclosure by GEF agencies to GEF stakeholders. Furthermore, the fourth overall performance study of the GEF also highlighted a lack of transparency at the identification phase of GEF projects.

  1. Owing to the fact that the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) and the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) follow the policies, procedures and governance structure of the GEF, their stakeholders experience similar challenges to the GEF regarding transparency and accountability at the level of project implementation.
  2. The governance structure of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) follows a constituency model, with an established board composed of an equal number of members from developed and developing countries. The GCF Board is independent, accountable to the COP and aims to promote transparent decision-making. The Board members are selected by their respective constituency or by a regional group within their constituency. The GCF

 

Board meetings are not webcast but they are recorded, and the recordings are made available online three weeks after the meeting for registered users, while the meeting documents are made publicly available online6 before each meeting of the Board.

Conclusions

  1. Based on the review by Transparency International, there is evidence that the decision-making process at the GEF is transparent. The operations and interactions of the implementing agencies of the GEF with the recipient countries during project implementation could benefit from further transparency of information disclosure on the status of implementation of the projects. This transparency is particularly critical in those recipient countries where project implementation capacity is weak.
  2. With respect to the transparency at the project preparation phase, the review found that the national portfolio formulation exercises (NPFEs) promoted by the GEF during the fifth replenishment period of the GEF (GEF 5) has helped to improve the transparency of project preparation. Recipient countries are therefore encouraged to continue to undertake the NPFEs in order to facilitate the identification of projects.
  1. Level of stakeholder involvement
    1. The GEF has fostered a high level of participation from civil society organizations (CSOs), and the private sector. The GEF Civil Society Organization Network, which comprises all accredited CSOs to the GEF, takes part in the GEF process from upstream policy development to project implementation at both national and local levels. The GEF Council meetings are preceded by a meeting of the GEF Civil Society Organization Network, and in addition, two CSO representatives participate in GEF Council meetings as observers and are invited to make interventions during those meetings. The GEF is currently reviewing the Policy on Public Involvement in GEF projects, in consultation with the GEF Civil Society Organization Network, in order to formulate draft guidelines for public involvement to be presented to the GEF Council in October 2014.
  2. The Governing Instrument of the GCF mandates the GCF Board to make arrangements, including developing and operating accreditation processes, to allow for effective participation by accredited observers in its meetings and to invite, to participate as active observers, two civil society representatives: one each from developing and developed countries, and two private sector representatives, one each from developing and developed countries.
  3. The GCF Board adopted additional rules of procedure for the Board relating to observers and an accreditation process for observers to the Fund was put in place. To date, 183 organizations including CSOs, private sector organizations and international entities have been accredited as observers to GCF Board meetings. Furthermore, all four accredited active observers from civil society and the private sector participate in GCF Board meetings and are invited to make interventions.

Conclusion and recommendation

  1. The GEF has been successful in ensuring stakeholder involvement both at the level of the GEF Council and in project implementation.
  2. The GCF could build on the experience of and lessons learned from the GEF in terms of stakeholder involvement. In this regard, the GCF may consider establishing a robust consultative process with its observers in order to ensure that adequate and timely consultation is undertaken with respect to the development of its policies, procedures, guidelines, and, later on, during the implementation of programmes and projects of the Fund.
  1. Gender-sensitive approaches
    1. The sub-study on gender mainstreaming made in the context of the fifth overall performance study of the GEF found that the GEF secretariat had made significant efforts to implement a gender mainstreaming policy, while there was scope for improvement in the application of the policy by GEF agencies. In addition, the policy recommendation of the sixth replenishment period of the GEF on further work on gender mainstreaming emphasized that more concerted efforts need to be made in order to enhance gender mainstreaming within the GEF. Accordingly, the GEF secretariat is currently developing a Gender Action Plan, which will identify ways to enhance gender mainstreaming, including the use of relevant gender-sensitive indicators and sex-disaggregated data. The Action Plan will be presented to the GEF Council in October 2014.
    2. In the  light  of the  provisions  of its  governing instrument  to  take  a  Fund-wide “gender-sensitive approach”, the GCF has committed to integrating gender considerations in its procedures and operational modalities. At its seventh meeting, the GCF Board approved an initial results management framework with provisions for sex-disaggregated indicators, including initial criteria for assessing programmes and projects proposals that include gender aspects. The GCF secretariat is currently preparing a draft gender action policy and action plan for consideration by the Board at its meeting in October 2014.

Conclusion and recommendation

  1. The GEF has made considerable progress in mainstreaming gender into its activities. Since there is scope for improvement, an action plan is to be approved by the GEF Council in October 2014 and the results of this progress are expected to be reflected in the programmes and projects of the GEF.
  2. In developing its own approach to gender mainstreaming, the GCF could build on the experience of the GEF. It is recommended that gender equality be integrated in the structure and organization of the GCF itself, and that gender-sensitive criteria be taken into account in funding approvals of the Fund.
  1. Environmental and social safeguards
    1. The GEF Policy on Agency Minimum Standards on Environment and Social Safeguards applies across all GEF agencies. Moreover, all entities seeking to be accredited must demonstrate not only that their internal policies and procedures comply with minimum standards, but also that the entities themselves have the institutional capacities and systems in place to implement those standards. To date, all existing GEF agencies are in compliance with the environmental and social safeguards of the GEF.
    2. The  GCF  Board  has  adopted,  on  an  interim  basis,  the  International  Financial Corporation’s IFC Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability, with a view to developing its own environmental and social safeguard policy within three years of becoming operational.

Conclusion and recommendation

  1. As the GCF is developing its own environment and social safeguards, it should consider consistency with the safeguards of the GEF.
  2. Since the GCF will also be using financial intermediaries such as commercial banks, it is recommended that the GCF also develop an appropriate oversight mechanism to ensure that the institutions to which these intermediaries will channel funding also comply with the environmental policies and social safeguards of the GCF.
  1. Fiduciary standards
    1. The minimum fiduciary standards of the GEF build on international best practices. GEF agencies are responsible for monitoring and implementing these standards. To date, all existing GEF agencies are in compliance with the minimum fiduciary standards established by the GEF.
    2. At its 7th meeting, the GCF Board adopted initial fiduciary principles and standards, which will be reviewed within three years of their adoption. The GCF Board also requested the secretariat to develop, under the guidance of an accreditation panel established by the Board, additional specialized fiduciary standards that may be deemed necessary in order to effectively accommodate all capacities that are required in implementing entities and intermediaries in the initial phase of operations of the Fund.

Recommendation

25. As it monitors the use of its initial fiduciary standards and reviews those standards within the next three years, the GCF should consider maintaining consistency with the standards of the GEF.

  1. Responsiveness to Conference of the Parties guidance
  1. Level of responsiveness to Conference of the Parties guidance
    1. In assessing the responsiveness of the GEF to COP guidance, the fifth overall performance study found that the guidance by the COP is fully reflected in the strategies of the GEF and that requests from the COP are largely taken into account in programming GEF resources. It concludes that the level of responsiveness of the GEF to COP guidance is high both at the strategic and portfolio levels.
    2. Some of the Parties and stakeholders of the GEF viewed the GEF to be slow in operationalizing some of the guidance provided by the COP. The fifth overall performance study of the GEF, however, indicated that there are a few issues that made it difficult for the GEF to respond to the guidance received including: (i) the lack of clarity and prioritization in the guidance; (ii) the repetitive nature of the guidance, which has led to an enormous volume of requests to the GEF; and (iii) the timing of the provision of guidance that falls between replenishments of the GEF.

Conclusion and recommendation

  1. The Evaluation Office of the GEF has found that the GEF is highly responsive to COP guidance, and that it has taken considerable steps to report to the COP in this regard. The GEF is encouraged to continue to provide information on how it has responded to the guidance it has received via its report to the COP.
  2. As the GCF is under development, it is too early to assess the level of its responsiveness to COP guidance. However, the efforts made by the GCF Board to respond to COP guidance can be acknowledged.
  1. Efficiency of the Global Environment Facility project cycle
    1. The GEF has been making considerable efforts over the past 10 years to improve the efficiency of its project cycle. Full size projects (FSPs) approved during the first replenishment period of the GEF took an average of 36 months to progress through the project preparation cycle. This already lengthy preparation time increased to 50 months for projects during the second replenishment period of the GEF, and to 66 months for projects during the third replenishment period of the GEF. However, during GEF 5, the average time for preparation of GEF project cycle dropped to 18.5 months, as the GEF Council established a standard time frame of 18 months for project preparation.
    2. Since 2012, the GEF has undertaken a series of measures that seek to improve the efficiency of its project cycle, including a pilot project for the harmonization of the GEF and World Bank project cycles. The policy recommendation of the sixth replenishment period of the GEF (GEF 6) on improving the efficiency of the GEF project cycle requested the GEF secretariat to continue to review the performance of the GEF against the current time frame standard of 18 months from GEF Council approval and endorsement by the Chief Executive Officer of the GEF to identify: (i) more effective measures with which to expedite project preparation; and (ii) an appropriate standard project cycle time frame for the GEF 6.
    3. Consequently, the GEF secretariat will prepare, for consideration by the GEF Council at its meeting in October 2014, a set of further measures to improve the policies and procedures associated with the full project cycle, including the programmatic approach and a proposal for a policy on the cancellation of projects that exceed time frame targets for project preparation as requested by the GEF Council at its November 2013 meeting.

Conclusion

  1. It is recognized that the GEF has undertaken measures to improve the length and efficiency of its project cycle over the years. These measures have resulted in significant improvements and the GEF is encouraged to continue undertaking such measures.
  1. Mobilization of financial resources
    1. Amount of resources provided to developing countries
      1. The GEF Trust Fund has been the primary source of grants provided to developing countries though the Financial Mechanism. Funding for climate change mitigation by the GEF has increased steadily from the GEF pilot phase to GEF 5. As at June 2014, the GEF has funded 787 projects on climate change mitigation amounting to more than USD 4.5 billion. Specifically, during GEF 5, about USD 1.2 billion of GEF funding was programmed for direct mitigation projects. Moreover in April 2014, donors pledged USD 4.43 billion to the GEF for GEF 6 (July 2014 to June 2018).

 

  1. With the complete programming of the USD 50 million allocation for the strategic priority on adaptation under the GEF Trust Fund, funding in support of adaptation at the GEF is now delivered directly through the LDCF and the SCCF. As at 30 June 2014, about USD 1.3 billion overall has been programmed by the GEF for adaptation.
  2. The LDCF and the SCCF rely on voluntary contributions from developed countries and have experienced increasing trends in contributions. Cumulative pledges to the LDCF went from USD 292 million in October 2010 to about USD 900 million in June 2014 (96 per cent has been disbursed by developed countries), while cumulative pledges to the SCCF went from USD 167 million in October 2010 to about USD 344 million in June 2014 (94 per cent has been disbursed by developed countries).
  3. An important milestone was achieved at the 7th meeting of the GCF Board, when it completed the eight essential requirements for the Fund to receive, manage, programme and disburse resources, and thereby decided to commence the process for an initial resource mobilization. Although no numerical figure or target was defined for this initial resource mobilization, it was agreed that it would be commensurate with the ambition of the Fund to promote the paradigm shift towards low-emission and climate-resilient development pathways in developing countries.

Conclusion

  1. The GEF has mobilized resources via a replenishment process (GEF Trust Fund) and voluntary channels for the LDCF and the SCCF. Additional resources are mobilized by co-financing for GEF funds. Through the aforementioned resources, combined, the GEF has raised considerable funds for climate change.
  1. Amount of finance leveraged and modalities of co-financing
    1. From the estimates of co-financing ratios achieved by the GEF, climate change has attained the highest co-financing ratios. As a result, climate change constitutes about 50 per cent of the total co-financing mobilized by the GEF. However, caution should be exercised when looking at these ratios, as they mask a high variability in these ratios at the project level, and the flexibility accorded by the GEF to least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing States (SIDS), from which a higher level of co-financing is not necessarily requested during the approval process.
    2. National governments have been the main source of co-financing (equivalent to about 41 per cent of the fourth replenishment of the GEF (GEF 4) and GEF 5 co-financing that has been mobilized), followed by the GEF agencies as the second highest provider of co-financing (about 25 per cent of GEF 4 and GEF 5 total co-financing), the private sector and bilateral, multilateral sources, foundations or NGOs.
    3. Two main issues have been raised within the GEF partnership with regards to co-financing. The first is the lack of clarity in the definition and application of co-financing by the GEF. The second is that the process for seeking co-financing can delay the project cycle significantly. At its 46th meeting, in May 2014, the GEF Council approved a “revised co-financing policy”, in response to the policy recommendations of GEF 6 on co-financing and the request made by the COP to the GEF, in order to clarify the concept of co-financing and its application to the review of funding proposals. The new policy clarifies the definition of co-financing and approaches to promoting effective co-financing. It also sets a goal for the overall GEF portfolio of reaching a co-financing ratio of at least USD 6 (co-financing) to USD 1 (GEF) with the expectation of greater co-financing in upper middle income countries that are not SIDS. There are no project-specific co-financing requirements.

Conclusion and recommendation

  1. In order to expedite the project cycle during GEF 6, the GEF should ensure that its co-financing policy is clearly understood and appropriately applied by accredited GEF project agencies and GEF implementing agencies.
  1. Adequacy, predictability and sustainability of funds
    1. With a replenishment process taking place every four years, funding to the GEF Trust Fund is provided in a predictable and sustainable manner by developed countries. As no assessment of the financing needs of developing countries has been agreed on at the level of the Convention, it is challenging to assess the adequacy of the financing provided to the GEF. Furthermore, since GEF is only a channel through which financial support is provided to developing countries, an assessment of the adequacy of resources mobilized for developing countries that looks only at the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism will be misleading because of its narrow scope.
    2. Through the application of its System for Transparent Allocation of Resources (STAR), the GEF has made the funding for its recipient countries, especially SIDS and LDCs, fairly predictable. The midterm evaluation undertaken by the GEF Independent Evaluation Office highlighted that STAR has contributed to making GEF operations more relevant to country needs and priorities and has led to greater transparency in GEF operations. As a result, high levels of utilization of STAR allocations were experienced during GEF 5 by all GEF recipients, with an 85 and 80 per cent utilization of overall STAR allocations by SIDS and the LDCs, respectively. Moreover, the GEF 6 policy recommendation on updating STAR stipulates measures to increase the funding allocations for the LDCs.
    3. Although the LDCF has seen considerable growth over recent years, additional contributions are needed if the Fund is to meet the full costs of addressing the urgent and immediate adaptation needs of the LDCs. For example, as at September 2014, no resources were available for new funding approvals under the LDCF, whereas resources amounting to USD 41.8 million were sought for five full-sized projects that had been technically cleared by the GEF secretariat. For the next GEF cycle (2014–2018), the GEF has estimated the financing needs of the LDCF at USD 700–900 million.
    4. Despite a successful record both in terms of positive evaluations and accelerated approval and disbursement rates, the main obstacle to adaptation programming under the SCCF remains the lack of adequate and predictable resources. Given the continued high demand for resources from the SCCF, the GEF has reported that, for example during the fiscal year 2014, the SCCF could meet less than 30 per cent of the demand reported in the priority project documents submitted to the GEF secretariat for technical review and in the relevant work programme entry. The GEF has estimated the financing needs of the SCCF for 2014–2018 at USD 400–500 million.
    5. STAR does not apply to LDCF and SCCF funding. However, the LDCF applies a principle of 'equitable access” to ensure that funding is available to all LDCs. This principle includes a ceiling intended to prevent countries with strong institutional capacity in preparing projects from depleting the limited resources of the LDCF, to the disadvantage of other LDCs. In April 2014, the ceiling was increased from USD 20 million to USD 30 million in response to the significant, additional contributions received between June and December 2013.

 

48. The GCF is expected to eventually have a replenishment process, as the GEF does. The GCF will aim for an equal allocation of finance to mitigation and adaptation projects over time, and for at least 50 per cent of the adaptation finance to be allocated to particularly vulnerable countries, including the LDCs, SIDS and the African States. The Board has also decided to maximize the engagement of the private sector, including through significant allocation to the Private Sector Facility of the Fund.

Conclusion and recommendations

  1. The financing for climate change from the GEF Trust Fund increased significantly from GEF 4 to GEF 5. While the allocation to the GEF 6 climate change focal area has slightly decreased compared with GEF 5, there are several climate-relevant components in the new integrated approaches and within the sustainable forest management set-aside. Overall, financing for climate change related interventions has continued to increase from GEF 5 to GEF 6. Moreover, the GEF Trust Fund is considered to be predictable and sustainable. Its adequacy, however, cannot be determined since the GEF is only one of the many financing channels for climate change in developing countries.
  2. The review has found that the funds provided to the LDCF and SCCF have substantially increased over the period of the review. The needs, however, have also increased during that period and there remains a backlog of fundable projects. Financing is provided to these funds via voluntary channels and is therefore not considered predictable and sustainable.
  3. The GEF and the GCF may consider collaborating in the use of funding pathways that may include the LDCF and the SCCF.
  1. Delivery of financial resources
    1. Accessibility to funds
      1. The GEF delivers financing to recipient countries’ governments, to NGOs and to the private sector. This is guided by a country allocation for the different focal areas of the GEF Trust Fund. There is no allocation system for the LDCF and the SCCF. However, the GEF has established a ceiling for the LDCF in order to prevent countries with strong institutional capacity in preparing projects from depleting the limited resources of the LDCF, to the disadvantage of the other LDCs. The GEF has also established a process for direct access to the GEF Trust Fund for enabling activities, but only a few countries have applied such direct access.
      2. The allocation parameters and procedures of the GEF and its agencies, as well as the capacity of countries to formulate and develop proposals, affect developing countries’ access to the GEF. To further assist countries, the GEF secretariat is working to directly engage countries and increase their awareness and understanding of policies and procedures of the GEF. This is done through national dialogues and other such mechanisms.
      3. During GEF 5, all developing countries including LDCs and SIDS were able to programme their STAR allocation. Estimates of the overall utilization of STAR allocations by developing countries show an uptake of 93 per cent for the overall GEF Trust Fund, with 80 and 85 per cent of utilization by LDCs and SIDS, respectively. While some of the barriers to accessing the GEF Fund were solved with STAR, co-financing remains an obstacle to access, especially for the LDCs and SIDS.
      4. The GEF Council in 2010 decided to accredit up to 10 new GEF project agencies, at least half of them based in developing countries, in order to expand the range of agencies with which GEF recipient countries could work. Out of the 10 new project agencies to be accredited, the GEF aims to accredit at least 5 national institutions with a regional balance, at least 1 national institution from an LDC and at least 1 national institution from a middle income country. This process has moved slower than expected and the GEF is reviewing its strategy in the light of the findings of the report on the fifth overall performance study of the GEF.

56. The GCF will allow direct access to it by national institutions based in developing countries. The GCF readiness program is intended to foster a better direct engagement between it and its recipient countries. It will provide technical and capacity-building support for implementing entities (particularly national and subnational institutions) that may not meet the standards of the Fund yet.

Conclusion and recommendation

  1. The GEF has made a significant effort to inform countries of the programmes and policies of the GEF, and as a result, recipient countries have utilized most of their allocations. Nevertheless, the LDCs and SIDS still face challenges in accessing all of their resources.
  2. The GCF would benefit from lessons learned on the accreditation process from other funds, particularly the GEF. In the case of the GEF, the goal of accreditation of 10 project agencies was only partially achieved. The GCF may consider building on existing systems of GEF intermediaries and implementing entities, and may in the process also consider providing financial assistance to support the accreditation of national entities in recipient countries that may need it.
  1. Disbursement of funds
    1. The speed and efficiency of disbursement appears to be improving at the GEF, despite some challenges. While the number of projects delayed by more than two years is substantially reduced compared with GEF 4 levels, information on the amount of funding that has actually been disbursed by GEF agencies to recipient countries has not been made available in an integrated form owing to a lack of reliability of data, which is due to a lack of standard definitions of when “disbursement” takes place from GEF agencies to recipient countries. Countries have identified slow disbursements as a reason for project delays. The GEF is currently working on harmonizing the timeline for the disbursement of funds and setting performance targets.
    2. There has been significant emphasis on disbursement in the LDCF and the SCCF. In the case of the former, the May 2014 annual monitoring report finds that active projects amounted to USD 134.98 million as at 30 June 2013, of which USD 46.49 million had been disbursed, representing an average disbursement rate of 38 per cent. The SCCF had committed USD 94.29 million to 21 projects by 30 June 2013, of which USD 33.22 million or 32 per cent had been disbursed.

Conclusion

  1. There is a recognized need to strengthen GEF project monitoring systems in order to be able to provide better information on the level of disbursement of approved funds. The GEF should work with its agencies on establishing a standard definition of “disbursement” in order to generate a common understanding of the term within the GEF partnership and enhance transparency of its processes.
  2. Country ownership of programmes and projects
  1. Efforts were made to strengthen the country ownership of GEF programmes and projects during GEF 5. In this regard, the midterm reviews of the experiences with STAR suggest that the clarity that countries now have on the scale and scope of their GEF allocation has contributed to strengthening the ownership of programming at the GEF. Additionally, countries are now also supported to undertake an NPFE to engage across governments and relevant stakeholders on how GEF resources should best be used and prioritized. In the majority of cases, the NPFE provided a helpful framework for interaction between the GEF and stakeholders, but its uptake during GEF 5 was relatively low. Participants to the GEF-6 replenishment process encouraged recipient countries to undertake NPFEs as early as possible so as to facilitate the programming of GEF 6 country allocations.

63. The concept of country ownership has been a driving principle in the design of the GCF. It is also a key element of the GCF investment framework approved in May 2014. Coherence with national policies and strategies and engagement with national stakeholders will be key considerations in fostering country ownership in the actions of the GCF. A transparent no-objection procedure is to be developed to this end. Through early investments in readiness, the GCF secretariat is beginning the process of engagement with countries in order to understand their priorities.

Recommendation

  1. There is a recognized need to continue to deepen engagement at different levels of the GEF partnership as a means of fostering ownership of projects and programmes in recipient countries. Upfront support in facilitating national stakeholder engagement on how best to use country allocations has proven to be useful when done through NPFEs. Developing countries should continue to undertake NPFEs in order to facilitate the programming of their GEF 6 STAR allocations.
  1. Sustainability of programmes and projects
    1. The GEF defines sustainability as the maintenance of the benefits of the project and programs beyond the life of the GEF intervention. In this regard, the review found that 70 per cent of GEF projects have been rated moderately satisfactory or higher in terms of their sustainability. Financial and institutional risks, as well as staff turnover and changes in government priorities have been highlighted as potential impediments to sustainability. Mainstreaming of the activities of the projects has been found to be best practice. However, mainstreaming normally requires time that goes well beyond the life of the project.

Conclusion

  1. Policy and legislative changes as well as mainstreaming have been found to promote sustainability, but cannot always be fully implemented within the lifetime of the project.
  1. Enabling environments
    1. A significant share of GEF 5 programmes have sought to strengthen policy and regulatory environments in order to support low-emission and climate-resilient development. In this regard, a recent evaluation of GEF support for mitigation documented causal links between support and key policy changes in a third of the projects that it reviewed. It emphasized the importance of public sector institutions, strategies and policies for the private sector replication of the approaches piloted. It found that enabling programmes that engaged key non-governmental stakeholders (including the private sector) that could be advocates for policy change were more successful.
    2. Country-driven GEF projects that aim to develop and enact key policy changes may improve the enabling environment in recipient countries. However, it should be noted that strengthening policy and regulatory environments may require more time than a single GEF project cycle.

Conclusion 

  1. There is ample room for the GCF to learn from the experiences of other funds in terms of improving the enabling environments in recipient countries. It can do this by linking investments with focused efforts to engage stakeholders within countries in programming, and by providing technical assistance and capacity-building so as to strengthen enabling environments – institutions, policies, and regulations – that support mitigation and adaptation actions in developing countries.
  1. Results and impacts
    1. In an effort to assess the impacts of its activities, the GEF has created a results-based management (RBM) framework and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) requirements. The fifth overall performance study, however, has reported that the RBM framework and M&E requirements of the GEF are too onerous to be executed and had recommended that the RBM framework of GEF 6 include a limited number of outcomes that can be measured through existing or easily generated data.
    2. As a result, the GEF has made and is continuing to make efforts to streamline its RBM framework in order to improve the measurement of the results and impacts of its activities.
  1. Mitigation results
    1. The fifth overall performance study of the GEF found that as at 30 June 2013, the GEF had allocated a total of USD 3.3 billion to 615 projects that address climate change mitigation, of which USD 3.1 billion has been allocated to 547 projects with mitigation targets. The total amount of direct and indirect mitigation impact expected from these projects is 2.6 and 8.2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) emissions, respectively, or 10.8 billion tonnes of CO2 eq combined.
  2. Despite improving the methodologies for the measurement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, evaluations by the GEF of mitigation impact stress the difficulties of consistent reporting. The key underpinning parameters are dynamic, and this may result in substantial changes to realized GHG emission reductions. Similarly, assessing the cost-effectiveness of interventions is difficult. The GEF has initiated a work programme in order to improve its methodologies and systems for measuring GHG reductions more consistently.
  3. Adaptation results
    1. Over the years, the adaptation programme of the GEF (the GEF Trust Fund, the LDCF and the SCCF) has supported focused efforts to help developing countries to adapt to and strengthen their resilience to the impacts of climate change. As at 26 September 2014, a total of 79 LDCF projects provided an estimate of the expected number of direct beneficiaries. These projects, with LDCF resources amounting to USD 386.31 million, seek to reduce the vulnerability of an estimated 8.1 million people directly. Forty-nine LDCF projects support 35 countries in their efforts to integrate climate change adaptation into 112 national development policies, plans and frameworks. The LDCF also assists countries in laying the groundwork for climate-resilient development planning through 51 projects that will enable 34 countries to strengthen their national hydro-meteorological and climate information services.
    2. Under the SCCF, 32 projects provided an estimated number of direct beneficiaries as at 26 September 2014. These projects, to which SCCF resources amounting to USD 135.72 million have been allocated, aim to reduce the vulnerability of an estimated 3.54 million people directly. In addition, 19 SCCF projects are already supporting 34 countries in their efforts to integrate climate change adaptation into 102 national development policies, plans and frameworks.

Recommendation to strengthen adaptation and mitigation results

  1. The GEF and the GCF may consider collaborating to harmonize impact indicators and set new norms around reporting practice, especially in the context of adaptation finance. Furthermore, the operationalization of the GCF results-based management framework presents an opportunity to make progress in this regard.
  1. Technology transfer
    1. During GEF 5, the GEF promoted technology transfer at various stages of the technology development cycle, from demonstration of innovative emerging low-emission and climate-resilient technologies to diffusion of commercially proven environmentally sound technologies and practices. Moreover, support for technology transfer has also been delivered in the context of the Poznan strategic programme on technology transfer for which a funding window of USD 50 million was created at the GEF with funds from both the GEF Trust Fund and the SCCF. The GEF has also supported the operationalization of the Climate Technology Centre and Network.
  2. Capacity-building
    1. The GEF has made significant investments in capacity-building, including through cross-cutting capacity-building projects as well as through capacity gained in the design and implementation of projects. Investments of the GEF covered most of the priority areas listed in the framework for capacity-building in developing countries. Furthermore, capacity-building replication and scaling up, and climate change mainstreaming into national development planning are becoming increasingly common practice within the GEF. For example, several GEF small grant projects developed into medium- and full-sized projects.

Conclusion on results and impacts

  1. There is evidence that good results and impacts have been achieved with the resources provided by the GEF. Efforts to harmonize and improve the methodologies for measuring the results and impacts of the supported activities need to continue.
  1. Consistency of the Financial Mechanism with the objective of the Convention
    1. Article 2 of the Convention stipulates that the ultimate objective of this Convention and any legal instrument adopted by the Convention is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner. Furthermore, in accordance with decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 4, the long-term goal of holding the increase in the global average temperature below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels was recognized.
    2. The review found that as an operating entity of the Financial Mechanism, the GEF, through its projects and programmes, contributes to supporting developing countries in meeting the objective of the Convention, while enhancing their resilience to the adverse effects of climate change. In relation to the below 2 °C goal, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has noted that emission patterns that limit temperature increase from pre-industrial levels to no more than 2 °C require considerably different patterns of investment.

Conclusion

  1. The GEF programmes and policies are consistent with the objectives of the Convention.
  1. Consistency and complementarity of the Financial Mechanism with the other financial flows and sources of investment
    1. Decision 11/CP.1, paragraph 2(a), provides that “consistency should be sought and maintained between the activities (including those related to funding) relevant to climate change undertaken outside the framework of the financial mechanism and the policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria for activities as relevant, established by the Conference of the Parties”.

 

from pre-industrial levels to no more than 2 °C require considerably different patterns of investment.

Conclusion

  1. The GEF programmes and policies are consistent with the objectives of the Convention.
  1. Consistency and complementarity of the Financial Mechanism with the other financial flows and sources of investment
    1. Decision 11/CP.1, paragraph 2(a), provides that “consistency should be sought and maintained between the activities (including those related to funding) relevant to climate change undertaken outside the framework of the financial mechanism and the policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria for activities as relevant, established by the Conference of the Parties".
  1.  In terms of activities funded outside the framework of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, the clean development mechanism (CDM) has been a successful incentive to implement mitigation action in developing countries. By the end of 2013, over 7,400 CDM projects had been registered in 93 developing countries, representing an estimated investment in excess of USD 400 billion and amounting to 1.46 billion certified emission reductions issued (or a reduction of 1.46 billion tonnes of CO2 eq).
  2. Additionally, the Clean Technology Fund (of the Climate Investment Funds (CIFs)), currently the largest multilateral mitigation fund with a cumulative capitalization of USD 5.5 billion, has been providing grants and concessional loans to developing countries.
  3. While the Adaptation Fund (AF) has been an important vehicle in providing support for adaptation in developing countries. It was established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries, and since its inception has allocated USD 232 million of grants to 40 developing countries. The AF has also pioneered direct access with the accreditation of national implementing entities (NIEs) in developing countries which can directly access the Fund without having to go through intermediaries. To date, 17 NIEs have been accredited to the AF.
  4. Another channel that has supported adaptation in developing countries is the Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience (PPCR) of the CIFs. The PPCR funds technical assistance and investments in order to support countries’ efforts to integrate climate risk and resilience into core development planning and implementation. With total pledges amounting to USD 1.3 billion, the PPCR provides incentives for scaled-up action and initiates transformational change by catalysing a shift from ‘business as usual’ to broad-based strategies for achieving climate resilience at the national level.
  5. In terms of ensuring complementarity with the other financial flows and sources of investment, the GEF has reported that it continues to work collaboratively with other organizations on financing complementary activities. For example, synergies have been highlighted between the Clean Technology Fund and the GEF climate change focal area, as well as between the pilot programme on climate resilience and the LDCF and the SCCF. Furthermore, the GEF and the AF have been working collaboratively in order to enhance synergies and avoid duplication of their respective actions in developing countries.
  6. With the establishment of the GCF, the risk of overlap among the activities financed within and outside the Convention is high. Although duplication is not desirable, it may not be the most important issue at this time, since, as outlined in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, much more significant climate financing is needed than that provided at present through all of these funds combined. Moreover, the funds can collaborate with each other to learn lessons from one another’s programmes and to set common performance targets. In this context, the respective funds under the Convention should be actively engaging on their strategic positioning towards the GCF and how they could foster complementarity with it.

90. The governing instrument of the GCF provides that the Board will develop methods to enhance complementarity between the activities of the Fund and the activities of other relevant bilateral, regional and global funding mechanisms and institutions to better mobilize the full range of financial and technical capacities.

Conclusions and recommendations

  1. The GEF has developed policies and programmes that have allowed it to be complementary to the community of climate finance providers.
  2. The operating entities of the Financial Mechanism and the funds under the Convention should collaborate with the view to taking advantage of the complementarity of their respective policies and programmes. The operating entities of the Financial Mechanism should provide information on the progress made in ensuring the complementarity with the other sources of climate finance in their respective reports to the COP.
  3. The Standing Committee on Finance could take into account the information on the efforts of the operating entities to enhance complementarity, when providing draft guidance for consideration by the COP.

 

Gender reference

As part of the LEG’s two-year rolling programme of work 2013- 2014, decides that the LEG is mandated to provide technical guidance and advice on strengthening gender-related considerations and considerations regarding vulnerable communities within least developed country Parties.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 5/CP.7, 29/CP.7, 7/CP.9, 4/CP.10, 4/CP.11 and 8/CP.13,

Recognizing the specific needs and special situation of the least developed countries under Article 4, paragraph 9, of the Convention,

Having considered the reports on the seventeenth and eighteenth meetings of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group, the report on possible elements for a future mandate for the group and the report on the training workshops on the implementation of national adaptation programmes of action,

Expressing its appreciation to the Least Developed Countries Expert Group for its good work in implementing its work programme for 2008–2010, supporting the preparation and implementation of national adaptation programmes of action and conducting regional training workshops on the implementation of national adaptation programmes of action,

Noting that the least developed country Parties continue to require technical support for the preparation, update and implementation of their national adaptation programmes of action,

  1. Decides to extend the mandate of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group under its current terms of reference;
  2. Also decides that the Least Developed Countries Expert Group should be mandated to provide technical guidance and advice on:
    1. The revision and update of national adaptation programmes of action, to further improve their quality, to facilitate the integration of adaptation actions of least developed country Parties into development planning and to reflect increased adaptation knowledge and changed priorities in the countries, upon request by least developed country Parties;
    2. The identification of medium- and long-term adaptation needs, their integration into development planning and the implementation of identified adaptation activities;
    3. Strengthening gender-related considerations and considerations regarding vulnerable communities within least developed country Parties;
    4. The implementation of the elements of the least developed countries work programme other than the preparation and implementation of national adaptation programmes of action that are relevant to the expertise of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group;
  3. Requests the Least Developed Countries Expert Group to develop a two-year rolling programme of work for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its first sessional meeting of each year, and to report on its work to the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at each of its sessions;
  1. Decides that the membership of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group should be expanded from 12 to 13 members in order to include one additional member from a least developed country Party;
  2. Requests the Least Developed Countries Expert Group to engage a wide range of organizations to support the implementation of its work programme;
  3. Decides that, consistent with decision 7/CP.9, paragraph 2, new experts may be nominated to the Least Developed Countries Expert Group, or existing members of the group may continue in office, as determined by the respective regions or groups;
  4. Requests the secretariat to continue to facilitate the work of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group;
  5. Decides to review, at its twenty-first session, the progress, need for continuation and terms of reference of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group, and to adopt a decision thereon;
  6. Also decides on the following actions and steps necessary for the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to initiate the review at its forty-second session, with a view to complete the review referred to in paragraph 8 above at its twenty-first session:
    1. To request the Least Developed Countries Expert Group to convene a meeting, including Parties, the Global Environment Facility and its agencies, and other relevant organizations, with the assistance of the secretariat, to take stock of its work, before June 2015;
    2. To invite Parties to submit to the secretariat, by 1 February 2015, their views on the work of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group, for compilation by the secretariat into a miscellaneous document for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its forty-second session;
    3. To request the secretariat to prepare a report on the stocktaking meeting for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its forty-second session, as input to the review;
    4. To request the secretariat to prepare a synthesis report on the progress, need for continuation and terms of reference of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group, based on the submissions from Parties, reports of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group, the report on the stocktaking meeting and other relevant information, for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its forty-second session, as input to the review.

 

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