Gender Mandates in Climate Policy

Before you start

In the last few years, the UNFCCC – the only one out of three Rio Conventions that lacked mandates on women’s rights and gender equality from the outset – has made major strides in integrating gender across all thematic areas in the negotiations. Most notable in recent years are the launch in 2014 of the Lima Work Programme on Gender and the integration of gender in the Paris Agreement as a preambular principle for all climate action, as well as in relation to adaptation and capacity building. Decisions have aimed to enhance gender equality via both policy and practice, encouraging gender balance in decision-making as well as responsiveness to gender issues in the development, implementation and monitoring of climate change policies and actions.

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Gender reference

Reaffirms the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacity building activities.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 2/CP.7, 2/CP.10, 4/CP.12, 1/CP.16 and 10/CP.16,

Acknowledging that capacity-building for developing countries is essential to enable them to participate fully in, and implement effectively their commitments under, the Convention,

Having considered the information in documents prepared by the secretariat in support of the second comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries,

Noting that while progress has been made, gaps still remain in addressing the priority issues identified in the framework for capacity-building in developing countries as contained in decision 2/CP.7, Reaffirming that capacity-building should be a continuous, progressive and iterative process that is participatory, country-driven and consistent with national priorities and circumstances,

Also reaffirming the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacitybuilding activities,

1. Decides that the scope of needs and priority areas identified in the framework for capacity-building in developing countries as contained in decision 2/CP.7 and the key factors identified in decision 2/CP.10 remain relevant and continue to be the basis for and guide the implementation of capacity-building activities in developing countries;

2. Also decides that capacity-building priorities and needs in developing countries, including those emerging from decision 1/CP.16, should be taken into account in the further implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries;

3. Invites relevant United Nations agencies and intergovernmental organizations to continue providing support for capacity-building efforts in developing countries, emphasizing and stressing the need for the full involvement of developing countries in the conception and development of such activities;

4. Also invites Parties included in Annex II to the Convention and other Parties that are in a position to do so, multilateral, bilateral and international agencies and the private sector to continue providing financial resources to support capacity-building action in developing countries;

5. Further invites Parties to enhance reporting on best practices related to capacitybuilding in their national communications, submissions and other relevant documents, with a view to furthering learning and broadening the impact of capacity-building activities; 

6. Decides that further implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries should be improved at the systemic, institutional and individual levels as appropriate, by the following:

(a) Ensuring consultations with stakeholders throughout the entire process of activities, from the design of activities to their implementation and monitoring and evaluation;

(b) Enhancing integration of climate change issues and capacity-building needs into national development strategies, plans and budgets;

(c) Increased country-driven coordination of capacity-building activities;

(d) Strengthened networking and information sharing among developing countries, especially through South–South and triangular cooperation;

7. Also decides to conclude the second comprehensive review and to initiate the third comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries, taking into account decisions 1/CP.16 and 2/CP.17 as they relate to capacity-building, at the forty-second session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (June 2015) with a view to completing the review at the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties (November–December 2016). 

Gender reference

Affirms the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacity-building activities

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol,

Recalling decisions 6/CMP.4 and 11/CMP.6,

Acknowledging that capacity-building for developing countries is essential to enable them to participate in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol,

Having considered the information in documents prepared by the secretariat in support of the second comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries established under decision 2/CP.7, 

Noting that key needs remain to be addressed to enable developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, African countries and small island developing States, to effectively participate in the clean development mechanism,

Reaffirming the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacity-building activities,

Noting that a range of the priority areas identified in decisions 29/CMP.1 and 2/CP.7 are being addressed by Parties and multilateral and bilateral agencies, especially as they relate to building capacity to develop and implement clean development mechanism project activities,

Recalling the commitment of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, welcoming the role the private sector plays in implementing the capacity-building activities identified in decisions 29/CMP.1 and 2/CP.7 and encouraging the private sector to continue its work in this field,

1. Decides that the scope of needs and priority areas identified in the framework for capacity-building in developing countries established under decision 2/CP.7, and the priority areas for capacity-building relating to the participation of developing countries in the clean development mechanism contained in decision 29/CMP.1, remain relevant and continue to be the basis for and to guide the implementation of capacity-building activities in developing countries;

2. Encourages Parties to further improve the implementation of capacity-building activities relating to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and to report on the effectiveness and sustainability of related capacity-building programmes;

3. Invites Parties that are in a position to do so, multilateral, bilateral and international agencies and the private sector to continue to provide technical and financial resources in a coordinated manner to support capacity-building activities in developing countries as they relate to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, addressing the following challenges, inter alia:

(a) The geographical distribution of clean development mechanism project activities; 

(b) The lack of technical expertise to estimate changes in carbon stock in soils; (c) The need to train and retain experts to plan and implement project activities;

4. Invites Parties included in Annex II to the Convention in a position to do so to provide capacity-building support for the planning and implementation of clean development mechanism project activities at the national and regional levels, as appropriate;

5. Decides that the further implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries should be improved at the systemic, institutional and individual levels, as appropriate, by:

(a) Ensuring consultations with stakeholders throughout the entire process, from the design of the clean development mechanism project activities to their implementation;

(b) Enhancing the integration of capacity-building needs relating to participation in the Kyoto Protocol into national development strategies and plans;

(c) Increased country-driven coordination of capacity-building activities;

(d) Strengthened networking and information sharing among developing countries, especially through South–South and triangular cooperation;

6. Encourages cooperative efforts between developing country Parties and developed country Parties to conceptualize and implement capacity-building activities relating to participation in the clean development mechanism;

7. Also encourages relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, in particular the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the Economic Commission for Africa, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the United Nations Institute for Training and Research and the UNFCCC secretariat, to continue enhancing and coordinating their capacity-building activities under the Nairobi Framework, including support for building skills;

8. Decides to conclude the second comprehensive review and initiate the third comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries, taking into account decisions 1/CP.16 and 2/CP.17 as they relate to capacity-building, at the forty-second session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (June 2015), with a view to completing the review at the twelfth session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (November– December 2016).

Gender reference

As part of the guidance on systems for providing information on how safeguards are addressed and respected, this decision agrees that these systems should respect gender considerations.

Elaborated language

http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/cop15/eng/11a01.pdf#page=11The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 2/CP.13, 4/CP.15 and 1/CP.16,

Recalling also decision 1/CP.16, paragraphs 69–71 and appendices I and II,

Noting that guidance on systems for providing information on how safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16 are addressed and respected should be consistent with national sovereignty, national legislation and national circumstances,

Recognizing the importance and necessity of adequate and predictable financial and technology support for developing all of the elements referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71,

Being aware of the need for any modalities for the construction of forest reference levels and forest emission reference levels to be flexible so as to accommodate national circumstances and capabilities, while pursuing environmental integrity and avoiding perverse incentives,

I. Guidance on systems for providing information on how safeguards are addressed and respected

1. Notes that the implementation of the safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16, and information on how these safeguards are being addressed and respected, should support national strategies or action plans and be included in, where appropriate, all phases of implementation referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 73, of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 of the same decision;

2. Agrees that systems for providing information on how the safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16 are addressed and respected should, taking into account national circumstances and respective capabilities, and recognizing national sovereignty and legislation, and relevant international obligations and agreements, and respecting gender considerations:

(a) Be consistent with the guidance identified in decision 1/CP.16, appendix I, paragraph 1;

(b) Provide transparent and consistent information that is accessible by all relevant stakeholders and updated on a regular basis;

(c) Be transparent and flexible to allow for improvements over time;

(d) Provide information on how all of the safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16 are being addressed and respected;

(e) Be country-driven and implemented at the national level;

(f) Build upon existing systems, as appropriate;

3. Agrees also that developing country Parties undertaking the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, should provide a summary of information on how all of the safeguards referred to in decision 1/CP.16, appendix I, are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of the activities;

4. Decides that the summary of information referred to in paragraph 3 above should be provided periodically and be included in national communications, consistent with relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties on guidelines on national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention, or communication channels agreed by the Conference of the Parties;

5. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, at its thirtysixth session, to consider the timing of the first presentation and the frequency of subsequent presentations of the summary of information referred to in paragraph 3 above, with a view to recommending a decision on this matter for adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth session;

6. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, at its thirty-sixth session, to consider the need for further guidance to ensure transparency, consistency, comprehensiveness and effectiveness when informing on how all safeguards are addressed and respected and, if appropriate, to consider additional guidance, and to report to the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth session;

II. Modalities for forest reference emission levels and forest reference levels

7. Agrees that, in accordance with decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71(b), forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year are benchmarks for assessing each country’s performance in implementing the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70;

8. Decides that forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, in accordance with decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71(b), shall be established taking into account decision 4/CP.15, paragraph 7, and maintaining consistency with anthropogenic forestrelated greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks as contained in each country’s greenhouse gas inventories;

9. Invites Parties to submit information and rationale on the development of their forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, including details of national circumstances and if adjusted include details on how the national circumstances were considered, in accordance with the guidelines contained in the annex to this decision and any future decision by the Conference of the Parties;

10. Agrees that a step-wise approach to national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level development may be useful, enabling Parties to improve the forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level by incorporating better data, improved methodologies and, where appropriate, additional pools, noting the importance of adequate and predictable support as referenced by decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71;

11. Acknowledges that subnational forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels may be elaborated as an interim measure, while transitioning to a national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level, and that interim forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels of a Party may cover less than its entire national territory of forest area;

12. Agrees that a developing country Party should update a forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level periodically as appropriate, taking into account new knowledge, new trends and any modification of scope and methodologies;

13. Invites developing country Parties, on a voluntary basis and when deemed appropriate, to submit proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, in accordance with decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 71(b), accompanied by the information referred to in paragraph 9 above;

14. Requests the secretariat to make available information on forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels on the UNFCCC REDD web platform, including submissions with proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels;

15. Agrees to establish a process that enables technical assessment of the proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels when submitted or updated by Parties in accordance with paragraph 12 above and in accordance with guidance to be developed by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice at its thirtysixth session.

 

Annex

Guidelines for submissions of information on reference levels

Each developing country Party aiming to undertake the actions listed in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, should include in its submission information that is transparent, complete, consistent with guidance agreed by the Conference of the Parties (COP) and accurate information for the purpose of allowing a technical assessment of the data, methodologies and procedures used in the construction of a forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. The information provided should be guided by the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidance and guidelines, as adopted or encouraged by the COP, as appropriate, and include:

(a) Information that was used by Parties in constructing a forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level, including historical data, in a comprehensive and transparent way;

(b) Transparent, complete, consistent and accurate information, including methodological information, used at the time of construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, including, inter alia, as appropriate, a description of data sets, approaches, methods, models, if applicable and assumptions used, descriptions of relevant policies and plans, and descriptions of changes from previously submitted information;

(c) Pools and gases, and activities listed in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, which have been included in forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels and the reasons for omitting a pool and/or activity from the construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, noting that significant pools and/or activities should not be excluded;

(d) The definition of forest used in the construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels and, if appropriate, in case there is a difference with the definition of forest used in the national greenhouse gas inventory or in reporting to other international organizations, an explanation of why and how the definition used in the construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels was chosen.

Gender reference

Requests the secretariat to organize, in collaboration with Nairobi work programme partner organizations and other relevant organizations, workshops on water and climate change and ecosystems-based approaches, which include indigenous and traditional knowledge and practices for adaptation and gender-sensitive tools and approaches as cross-cutting issues.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 1/CP.10 and 2/CP.11,

1. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to reconsider, at its thirty-eighth session, the work areas of the Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change with a view to making recommendations to the Conference of the Parties at its nineteenth session on how to best support the objectives of the Nairobi work programme; this process would further inform the organization of potential future areas of work that could also support the scientific and technical work under the Cancun Adaptation Framework, as appropriate;

 2. Invites Parties and relevant organizations to submit to the secretariat, by 17 September 2012, their views on potential future areas of work of the Nairobi work programme;

3. Requests the secretariat to compile those submissions into a miscellaneous document for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice at its thirty-eighth session in order to inform the process mentioned in paragraph 1 above;

4. Also requests the secretariat to organize, in collaboration with Nairobi work programme partner organizations and other relevant organizations, the following workshops, informed by the information contained in annex I to the report of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice on its thirty-fourth session and subsequent views of Parties, and to include indigenous and traditional knowledge and practices for adaptation and gender-sensitive tools and approaches as cross-cutting issues:

a) A technical workshop, before the thirty-seventh session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, on water and climate change impacts and adaptation strategies;

b) A technical workshop on ecosystem-based approaches for adaptation to climate change, before the thirty-eighth session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, taking into account the role of ecosystems, including forests, in adaptation; vulnerability and impacts in ecosystems; the implementation and benefits of ecosystem-based approaches for adaptation; and lessons learned, including through the three Rio Conventions;

5. Further requests the secretariat to prepare reports on the workshops referred to in paragraph 4(a) and (b) above, to be made available by the thirty-seventh and thirty-eighth sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, respectively;

6. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to consider, at its thirty-ninth session, relevant information and advice on the scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change arising from the implementation of the Nairobi work programme for consideration by other relevant bodies under the Convention;

7. Also requests the secretariat to prepare a compilation of case studies on national adaptation planning processes, including tools and approaches used for the prioritization and implementation of actions, building also on previous adaptation planning activities undertaken under the Nairobi work programme to date, by the thirty-seventh session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice;

8. Further requests the secretariat, in order to enable Parties to make better use of knowledge products and information generated under the Nairobi work programme:

a) To continue the development of user-friendly knowledge products and outputs, including those contributed by partner organizations;

b) To enhance the dissemination of information and knowledge products developed under the Nairobi work programme;

9. Invites Parties, in order to enable them to make better use of knowledge products and information generated under the Nairobi work programme, to disseminate the outcomes of the Nairobi work programme that are deemed useful for the assessment and implementation of adaptation actions, and to support their translation into other United Nations languages;

10. Requests the secretariat to continue its efforts to further engage stakeholders in the Nairobi work programme;

11. Encourages Nairobi work programme partner organizations and other stakeholders to further enhance their efforts through the better alignment of pledged actions with the needs of Parties and to provide, through the secretariat, periodic updates to Parties on the implementation of their pledged actions;

12. Notes the value of the Focal Point Forum in facilitating information exchange and collaboration between partner organizations;

13. Invites Parties and relevant organizations to continue to facilitate such exchanges, with a view to enhancing the implementation of the Nairobi work programme;

14. Urges Parties included in Annex II to the Convention, and other Parties in a position to do so, to provide financial support for the implementation of the Nairobi work programme;

15. Takes note of the estimated budgetary implications of implementing this decision, as provided by the secretariat;

16. Requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources.

Gender reference

Further reiterates that adaptation should follow a country-driven, gender-sensitive, participatory and fully transparent approach & should be based on and guided by gender-sensitive approaches. Additionally, the guidelines for the formulation of NAPs states that in developing NAPs, consideration would be given to the effective and continued promotion of participatory and gender-sensitive approaches.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling Article 4, paragraphs 4 and 9, and relevant Articles of the Convention,

Also recalling decision 1/CP.16,

Acknowledging that national adaptation planning can enable all developing and developed country Parties to assess their vulnerabilities, to mainstream climate change risks and to address adaptation,

Also acknowledging that, because of their development status, climate change risks magnify development challenges for least developed countries,

Recognizing the need to address adaptation planning in the broader context of sustainable development planning,

I. Framing national adaptation plans

1. Agrees that the objectives of the national adaptation plan process are as follows:

(a) To reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, by building adaptive capacity and resilience;

(b) To facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation, in a coherent manner, into relevant new and existing policies, programmes and activities, in particular development planning processes and strategies, within all relevant sectors and at different levels, as appropriate;

2. Also agrees that planning for adaptation at the national level is a continuous, progressive and iterative process, the implementation of which should be based on nationally identified priorities, including those reflected in the relevant national documents, plans and strategies, and coordinated with national sustainable development objectives, plans, policies and programmes;

3. Further agrees that enhanced action on adaptation should be undertaken in accordance with the Convention, should follow a country-driven, gender-sensitive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional and indigenous knowledge, and by gender-sensitive approaches, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate;

4. Agrees that the national adaptation plan process should not be prescriptive, nor result in the duplication of efforts undertaken in-country, but should rather facilitate country-owned, country-driven action; 

II. A process to enable least developed country Parties to formulate and implement national adaptation plans

A. Guidelines

5. Agrees that the formulation of national adaptation plans should build on and complement existing adaptation planning;

6. Decides to adopt the initial guidelines for the formulation of national adaptation plans contained in the annex to this decision;

7. Invites Parties and relevant organizations to submit to the secretariat, by 13 February 2013, information on their experiences with the application of the guidelines for the national adaptation plan process for least developed country Parties, for compilation by the secretariat into a miscellaneous document for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its thirty-eighth session;

8. Requests the secretariat to prepare a synthesis report on experiences with the application of the guidelines for the national adaptation plan process in least developed country Parties, taking into account the submissions referred to in paragraph 7 above and other relevant sources of information, for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its thirty-eighth session;

9. Decides to take stock of, and if necessary revise, the guidelines mentioned in paragraph 6 above at its nineteenth session, taking into account the submissions referred to in paragraph 7 above, the synthesis report referred to in paragraph 8 above, reports of the Least Developed Country Expert Group and other relevant sources of information;

10. Invites least developed country Parties to use the guidelines and modalities contained in this decision, in accordance with their national circumstances, in preparing their national adaptation plans;

11. Also invites least developed country Parties to strive to implement institutional arrangements to facilitate their national adaptation plan process, building on existing institutions and consistent with their national circumstances;

B. Modalities

12. Decides on the following modalities to support and enable least developed country Parties to formulate and implement national adaptation plans, inter alia: (a) Technical guidelines for the national adaptation plans; (b) Workshops and expert meetings; (c) Training activities; (d) Regional exchanges; (e) Syntheses of experiences, best practices and lessons learned; (f) Technical papers; (g) Technical advice;

13. Requests the Least Developed Countries Expert Group to provide technical guidance and support to the national adaptation plan process, as appropriate; 

14. Also requests the Least Developed Countries Expert Group, in carrying out its mandate to support the identification and implementation of medium- and long-term adaptation in least developed countries, to prioritize support for the formulation and implementation of national adaptation plans;

15. Further requests the Least Developed Countries Expert Group to prepare technical guidelines as referred to in paragraph 12(a) above for the national adaptation plan process, based on the initial guidelines, included in the annex to this decision;

16. Requests the Least Developed Countries Expert Group to arrange a review of the above-mentioned technical guidelines and to identify support needs for the process of formulation and implementation of the national adaptation plans, including through the modalities referred to in paragraph 12 above;

17. Also requests the Least Developed Countries Expert Group to invite the Adaptation Committee and other relevant bodies under the Convention to contribute to its work in support of the national adaptation plan process; and to report, as appropriate;

18. Invites national and regional centres and networks to strengthen their programmes and engage in support of the national adaptation plan process in least developed country Parties, at the regional, national and subnational levels, as appropriate, in a manner that is country-driven and that encourages cooperation and coordination between regional stakeholders;

19. Also invites Parties to strengthen their engagement with regional centres and networks, where possible, in the process of formulation and implementation of the national adaptation plan process in least developed country Parties;

20. Requests developed country Parties to continue to provide least developed country Parties with finance, technology and capacity-building in accordance with decision 1/CP.16, including paragraph 18, and other relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties;

C. Financial arrangements for the formulation and implementation of national adaptation plans

21. Urges developed country Parties to mobilize financial support for the national adaptation plan process for least developed country Parties through bilateral and multilateral channels, including through the Least Developed Countries Fund, in accordance with decision 1/CP.16;

22. Requests the Global Environment Facility, as an operating entity of the financial mechanism, through the Least Developed Countries Fund, to consider how to enable activities for the preparation of the national adaptation plan process for least developed countries Parties, while maintaining progress for the least developed countries work programme, which includes the national adaptation programmes of action;

23. Invites United Nations organizations, specialized agencies and other relevant organizations, as well as bilateral and multilateral agencies, to support the national adaptation plan process in least developed country Parties and, where possible, to consider establishing support programmes for the national adaptation plan process within their mandates, as appropriate, which could facilitate financial and technical support to least developed country Parties; and to submit to the secretariat, by 13 February 2012, information on how they have responded to this invitation; 

24. Also invites Parties and relevant organizations as well as bilateral and multilateral agencies, to submit to the secretariat, by 13 February 2012, information on support to the national adaptation plan process in least developed countries;

25. Further invites the Global Environment Facility, as an operating entity of the financial mechanism for the operation of the Least Developed Countries Fund, to submit information to the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, through the secretariat, by 13 February 2012, on how they could enable activities undertaken as part of the national adaptation plan process in least developed country Parties, for compilation by the secretariat into a miscellaneous document for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its thirty-sixth session;

26. Requests the secretariat to prepare a synthesis report on the support for the national adaptation plan process for least developed country Parties, taking into account the submissions referred to in paragraphs 23–25 above and other relevant sources of information, for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its thirty-sixth session;

27. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to consider guidance on policies and programmes to enable support for the national adaptation plan process for least developed country Parties, at its thirty-sixth session, taking into account, inter alia, the guidance in decision 27/CP.7 and the synthesis report referred to in paragraph 26 above, and taking into account other relevant decisions on financial support under the Convention, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth session;

III. An invitation to developing country Parties that are not least developed country Parties to employ the modalities for national adaptation plans

28. Reiterates the invitation to other developing country Parties to employ the modalities for national adaptation plans elaborated in this decision;

29. Invites interested developing country Parties that are not least developed country Parties to use the guidelines for the national adaptation plans for least developed country Parties adopted in this decision, in accordance with their national circumstances, when formulating their national adaptation plans;

30. Requests the Adaptation Committee, in accordance with its agreed functions, to consider, in its workplan, the relevant modalities for supporting interested developing country Parties that are not least developed country Parties, to plan, prioritize and implement their national adaptation planning measures, including through the use of the modalities contained in this decision, and to report to the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth session;

31. Invites the operating entities of the financial mechanism of the Convention, bilateral and multilateral organizations and other institutions as appropriate, to provide financial and technical support to developing country Parties to plan, prioritize and implement their national adaptation planning measures, consistent with decision 1/CP.16 and relevant provisions of the Convention; 

IV. Reporting, monitoring and evaluation

32. Invites Parties to provide information, through their national communications, on what measures they have undertaken and on support provided or received relevant to the national adaptation plan process;

33. Encourages least developed country Parties, to the extent possible, to provide information on their national adaptation plan process through their national communications, as well as other channels;

34. Requests the Least Developed Countries Expert Group, the Adaptation Committee and other relevant bodies under the Convention to include information in their reports on how they have responded to the requests made in this decision and on their activities relevant to the national adaptation plan process, as per their respective mandates;

35. Invites United Nations organizations, multilateral, intergovernmental and other international and regional organizations to provide information on their activities to support the national adaptation plan process;

36. Requests the secretariat, consistent with Article 8 of the Convention, to collect, compile and synthesize information needed by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to monitor and evaluate the progress made on the national adaptation plan process, drawing upon information in accordance with paragraphs 32-35 above;

37. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to monitor and evaluate progress made on the national adaptation plan process at its forty-second session, based on the reports by the secretariat referred to in paragraph 36 above, with a view to making recommendations to the Conference of the Parties, as appropriate;

38. Further requests the secretariat to utilize and enhance existing databases, to include information on support and other activities under the national adaptation plan process, as appropriate;

39. Requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources. 

 

Annex

Initial guidelines for the formulation of national adaptation plans by least developed country Parties

I. Introduction

1. The elements described in paragraphs 2–6 below are indicative of the activities that can be undertaken in the development of national adaptation plans (NAPs). The planning of such activities will depend on national circumstances and should be determined by least developed country Parties.

II. Elements of national adaptation plans

A. Laying the groundwork and addressing gaps

2. Activities undertaken under this element would be planned with a view to identifying weaknesses and gaps in enabling environments, and addressing them as necessary, to support the formulation of comprehensive adaptation plans, programmes and policies, through, inter alia:

(a) Identification and assessment of institutional arrangements, programmes, policies and capacities for overall coordination and leadership on adaptation;

(b) Assessment of available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, measures taken to address climate change, and gaps and needs, at the national and regional levels;

(c) Comprehensive, iterative assessments of development needs and climate vulnerabilities.

B. Preparatory elements

3. In developing NAPs, consideration would be given to identifying specific needs, options and priorities on a country-driven basis, utilizing the services of national and, where appropriate, regional institutions, and to the effective and continued promotion of participatory and gender-sensitive approaches coordinated with sustainable development objectives, policies, plans and programmes. Activities may include the following:

(a) Design and development of plans, policies and programmes by considering decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 14(a), to address the gaps and needs referred to in paragraph 2 above;

(b) Assessments of medium- and long-term adaptation needs, and, as appropriate, development needs and climate vulnerabilities;

(c) Activities aimed at integrating climate change adaptation into national and subnational development and sectoral planning;

(d) Participatory stakeholder consultations;

(e) Communication, awareness-raising and education. 

C. Implementation strategies

4. Activities carried out as part of the implementation strategies would take into consideration the following:

(a) Prioritizing work according to development needs and climate change vulnerability and risk; (b) Strengthening institutional and regulatory frameworks to support adaptation;

(c) Training and coordination at the sectoral and subnational levels;

(d) Public dissemination of information on the national adaptation plan process, to be made available to the public and to the UNFCCC secretariat; (e) Considering other relevant multilateral frameworks and international programmes and initiatives, with a view to building on and complementing existing adaptation planning.

D. Reporting, monitoring and review

5. These activities, including national adaptation plan documents, could be included in national strategies and plans, as appropriate.

6. Under this element, Parties should undertake a regular review, at intervals that they determine: (a) To address inefficiencies, incorporating the results of new assessments and emerging science and reflect lessons learned from adaptation efforts;

(b) To monitor and review the efforts undertaken, and provide information in their national communications on the progress made and the effectiveness of the national adaptation plan process. 

 

Gender reference

This annex states the Standing Committee shall be composed of members nominated by Parties for approval by the Conference of the Parties, taking into account the need to achieve gender balance in accordance with decision 36/CP.7.

Elaborated language

Annex VI

Composition and working modalities of the Standing Committee

1. The Standing Committee shall be composed of the following:

(a) Ten members from Parties included in Annex I to the Convention (Annex I Parties);

(b) Ten members from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (nonAnnex I Parties), including two members each from the African, Asia-Pacific, and the Latin America and Caribbean States, one member from a small island developing State and one member from a least developed country Party.

2. The Standing Committee shall be composed of members nominated by Parties for approval by the Conference of the Parties, who shall have the necessary experience and skills, notably in the areas of climate change, development and finance, taking into account the need to achieve gender balance in accordance with decision 36/CP.7.

3. Standing Committee members shall serve for a term of two years, with the option of seeking additional terms.

4. The Standing Committee shall elect annually a chair and a vice-chair from among its members for a term of one year each, with one being a member from a non-Annex I Party and the other being a member from an Annex I Party. The positions of chair and vice-chair shall alternate annually between a member from a developed country Party and a member from a developing country Party.

5. The Standing Committee shall develop further modalities for the participation of observers from the operating entities of the financial mechanism of the Convention, from funding entities (multilateral, bilateral and regional) involved in climate finance and from observer organizations from the private sector and civil society admitted to the Convention.

6. The Standing Committee shall draw upon additional expertise as it may deem necessary.

7. The Standing Committee shall meet at least twice a year, or more if necessary, and its first meeting shall take place prior to the thirty-sixth session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation.

8. The Standing Committee shall reach its conclusions by consensus.

9. The secretariat shall provide administrative support for the work of the Standing Committee.

10. The Conference of the Parties will conduct a review of the functions of the Standing Committee in 2015.

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Gender reference

Further reaffirms the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacity building activities.

Elaborated language

VI. Capacity-building

Recalling decisions 2/CP.7, 2/CP.10, 4/CP.12 and 1/CP.16,

Also recalling decision 1/CP.16, paragraphs 136 and 137, which request the consideration of ways to further enhance the monitoring and review of the effectiveness of capacity-building, and to further elaborate the modalities regarding institutional arrangements for capacity-building, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session, 

Reaffirming that capacity-building is essential in enabling developing country Parties to participate fully in addressing the challenges of climate change, and to implement effectively their commitments under the Convention,

Also reaffirming that capacity-building should be a continuous, progressive and iterative process that is participatory, country-driven and consistent with national priorities and circumstances,

Further reaffirming the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacity-building activities,

Acknowledging that capacity-building is cross-cutting in nature and an integral part of enhanced action on mitigation, adaptation, technology development and transfer, and access to financial resources,

Noting with appreciation the progress made across the bodies established under the Convention and the operating entities of the financial mechanism, including those agreed to in decision 1/CP.16, in integrating capacity-building into enhanced action on mitigation, adaptation, technology development and transfer, and access to financial resources,

Also noting decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 65, which encourages Parties to develop low-carbon development strategies or plans in the context of sustainable development, welcoming those Parties that have already begun the process of developing these strategies, and noting the important capacity-building outcomes that this process and related partnerships can provide,

Further noting that, while progress has been made, gaps still remain in addressing the priority issues identified in the framework for capacity-building in developing countries as contained in decision 2/CP.7,

144. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to further enhance the monitoring and review of the effectiveness of capacity-building by organizing an annual in-session Durban Forum for in-depth discussion on capacity-building with the participation of Parties, representatives of the relevant bodies established under the Convention, and relevant experts and practitioners, with a view to sharing their experiences and exchanging ideas, best practices and lessons learned regarding the implementation of capacity-building activities;

145. Decides that the Durban Forum should include as inputs, inter alia, any capacitybuilding elements contained in the reports prepared since the most recent session of the Durban Forum by the relevant bodies established under the Convention;

146. Requests the secretariat to compile and synthesize the reports prepared since the most recent session of the Durban Forum by the relevant bodies established under the Convention;

147. Also requests the secretariat to prepare a summary report on the Durban Forum for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation;

148. Encourages Parties to continue to provide information through the appropriate channels, including national communications, on the progress made in enhancing the capacity to address climate change;

149. Invites developing country Parties to report on progress made and measures taken in implementing and improving their enabling environments to build national capacity for mitigation and adaptation, and to include the needs relevant to enhancing the progress made on such measures in their communications on capacity-building priorities; 

150. Requests the secretariat to continue to compile and synthesize the information provided by Annex I Parties and to summarize the information provided by non-Annex I Parties in their national communications and submissions, and to compile and synthesize information on capacity-building activities, including lessons learned, provided by the relevant bodies established under the Convention and by international and regional organizations;

151. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, in its consideration of the third and subsequent comprehensive reviews of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries, to include the reports of relevant bodies established under the Convention, as well as the summary reports on the Durban Forum referred to in paragraph 147 above, as additional inputs to these reviews;

152. Encourages the relevant bodies established under the Convention, including, inter alia, the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention, the Least Developed Countries Expert Group and the Global Environment Facility as an operating entity of the financial mechanism, to continue to elaborate and carry out work on capacity-building in an integrated manner, as appropriate, within their respective mandates;

153. Recognizes that there may be ways to further enhance the monitoring and review of the effectiveness of capacity-building;

154. Decides that, in addition to the topics outlined in paragraph 144 above, the first meeting of the Durban Forum, organized during the thirty-sixth session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, shall explore potential ways to further enhance monitoring and review of the effectiveness of capacity-building;

155. Also decides that the financial resources for enhanced action on capacity-building in developing country Parties should be provided by Parties included in Annex II to the Convention and other Parties in a position to do so through the current and any future operating entities of the financial mechanism, as well as through various bilateral, regional and other multilateral channels, as appropriate;

156. Requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources;

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Gender reference

In the Terms of Reference for the CTCN, this decision affirms that the CTCN mission is to stimulate technology cooperation and to enhance the development and transfer of technologies and to assist developing country Parties at their request, to facilitate the preparation and implementation of technology projects and strategies taking into account gender considerations to support action on mitigation and adaptation and enhance low emissions and climate-resilient development. Additionally, in evaluating the host institution of the CTCN, the decision included criteria on the effectiveness of the current management structure of the host organization to ensure gender sensitivity.

Elaborated language

Annex VII

Terms of reference of the Climate Technology Centre and Network

I. Mission

1. The mission of the Climate Technology Centre and Network is to stimulate technology cooperation and to enhance the development and transfer of technologies and to assist developing country Parties at their request, consistent with their respective capabilities and national circumstances and priorities, in order to build or strengthen their capacity to identify technology needs, to facilitate the preparation and implementation of technology projects and strategies taking into account gender considerations to support action on mitigation and adaptation and enhance low emissions and climate-resilient development.

 

Annex VIII

I. Criteria to be used to evaluate and select the host of the Climate Technology Centre and Network and information required to be included in the proposals I. Criteria to be used to evaluate and select the host of the Climate Technology Centre

C. Existing governance and management structures

4. The prospective host’s existing governance and management structures will be scored based on the following sub criteria, which are of equal importance:

  • (a) The effectiveness of the governance structure and the system of the proponent institution to ensure the evaluation of operational performance against the following elements: integrity; transparency; fiduciary and ethical standards, consistent with the principles of the United Nations; and reporting and accountability;
  • (b) Demonstrated capability to ensure fair and open international tendering for the procurement of services in line with the fiduciary and ethical standards of the United Nations;
  • (c) Effectiveness of the current management structure of the host organization to ensure gender sensitivity, transparency, responsiveness, flexibility, financial management, auditing and reporting functions, and the ability to provide high-quality administrative, infrastructural and logistic arrangements, and accessibility to developing country Parties, including the least developed country Parties;
  • (d) The ability to simultaneously manage and administer multiple and complex projects in developing countries in a timely manner, including the ability to work effectively with different clients and interest groups towards shared and complementary objectives; and the ability to evaluate the operational performance of project management and to take measures to enhance its effectiveness.

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Gender reference

This decision contains a series of gender references in the rules and procedures for the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

1.The Governing Instrument states that the fund will take a gender-sensitive approach.

2.The GCF board will give due consideration to gender balance.

3.The GCF secretariat will take into account gender balance.

4.The GCF board will develop mechanisms to promote the input and participation of stakeholders, including private-sector actors, civil society organizations, vulnerable groups, women and indigenous peoples.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decision 1/CP.16,

1. Welcomes the report of the Transitional Committee (FCCC/CP/2011/6 and Add.1), taking note with appreciation of the work of the Transitional Committee in responding to its mandate given in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 109;

2. Approves the governing instrument for the Green Climate Fund annexed to this decision;

3. Decides to designate the Green Climate Fund as an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention, in accordance with Article 11 of the Convention, with arrangements to be concluded between the Conference of the Parties and the Fund at the eighteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to ensure that it is accountable to and functions under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties to support projects, programmes, policies and other activities in developing country Parties;

4. Notes that the Green Climate Fund will be guided by the principles and provisions of the Convention;

5. Decides to provide guidance to the Board of the Green Climate Fund, including on matters related to policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria and matters related thereto, taking into account the Board’s annual reports to the Conference of the Parties on its activities;

6. Requests the Board to operationalize the Fund in an expedited manner;

7. Also requests the Board to develop a transparent no-objection procedure to be conducted through national designated authorities referred to in paragraph 46 of the governing instrument annexed to this decision, in order to ensure consistency with national climate strategies and plans and a country driven approach and to provide for effective direct and indirect public and private sector financing by the Green Climate Fund. Further requests the Board to determine this procedure prior to approval of funding proposals by the Fund;

8. Requests the Board to balance the allocation of the Green Climate Fund resources between adaptation and mitigation activities;

9. Stresses the need to secure funding for the Green Climate Fund, taking into account paragraphs 29 and 30 of the governing instrument, to facilitate its expeditious operationalization, and requests the Board to establish the necessary policies and procedures, which will enable an early and adequate replenishment process;

10. Invites Parties, through their regional groupings and constituencies, to submit their nominations for the members of the Board to the interim secretariat by 31 March 2012, in accordance with paragraph 11 of the governing instrument for the Green Climate Fund, with the 12 seats for developing country Parties to be distributed as follows:

(a) Three members and alternate members from the Asia-Pacific States;

(b) Three members and alternate members from the African States;

(c) Three members and alternate members from the Latin American and the Caribbean States;

(d) One member and alternate member from small island developing States;

(e) One member and alternate member from least developed country Parties;

(f) One member from developing country Parties not included in the regional groups and constituencies above and one alternate member to rotate between developing country Parties included in the groups and constituencies listed above;

11. Decides that the Green Climate Fund be conferred juridical personality and legal capacity and shall enjoy such privileges and immunities related to the discharge and fulfilment of its functions, in accordance with paragraphs 7 and 8 of the governing instrument;

12. Invites Parties, in line with the objectives set forth in paragraph 12 above, to submit to the Board expressions of interest for hosting the Green Climate Fund by 15 April 2012, based on the following criteria:

(a) The ability to confer and/or recognize juridical personality and legal capacity to the Fund for the protection of its interests and the exercise of its functions, to give effect to paragraphs 7 and 8 of the governing instrument, including but not limited to the ability to contract, acquire and dispose of immovable and movable property, and to institute legal proceedings;

(b) The ability to provide privileges and immunities to the Fund as are necessary for the fulfilment of its purposes, and to the officials of the Fund as are necessary for the independent exercise of their official functions in connection with the Fund;

(c) Financial arrangements, administrative and logistical support to the Fund;

(d) Any other information that the host country wishes to provide;

13. Requests the Board, following the receipt of expressions of interest, to conduct an open and transparent process for the selection of the host country, and to decide on a host country for endorsement by the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth session, in accordance with paragraph 22 of the governing instrument;

14. Also requests the Board and the host country of the Green Climate Fund to develop, in accordance with paragraphs 7 and 8 of the governing instrument, the legal and administrative arrangements for hosting the Fund, and to ensure that juridical personality and legal capacity are conferred to the Fund, and privileges and immunities as are necessary are granted to the Fund and its officials in an expeditious manner;

15. Further requests the Board to establish the independent secretariat of the Green Climate Fund in the host country in an expedited manner as soon as possible, in accordance with paragraph 19 of the governing instrument;

16. Invites the Board to select the trustee of the Green Climate Fund through an open, transparent and competitive bidding process in a timely manner to ensure that there is no discontinuity in trustee services;

17. Requests the Board to initiate a process to collaborate with the Adaptation Committee and the Technology Executive Committee, as well as other relevant thematic bodies under the Convention, to define linkages between the Fund and these bodies, as appropriate;

18. Recognizes the need to facilitate the immediate functioning of the Green Climate Fund and ensure its independence, requests the UNFCCC secretariat jointly with the Global Environment Facility secretariat to take the necessary administrative steps to set up the interim secretariat of the Green Climate Fund as an autonomous unit within the UNFCCC secretariat premises without undue delay after the seventeenth session of the Conference of the Parties so that the interim secretariat can provide technical, administrative and logistical support to the Board until the independent secretariat of the Green Climate Fund is established;

19. Decides that the interim arrangements should terminate no later than the nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties;

20. Also decides that the interim secretariat shall be fully accountable to the Board and shall function under its guidance and authority, and that its head shall report to the Board;

21. Urges the Board to move promptly to appoint the head of the interim secretariat;

22. Decides that the criteria for the selection of the head of the interim secretariat shall include, inter alia, expertise in the design or management of funds, relevant administrative and management experience, experience in or working with developing countries, and policy expertise;

23. Requests the interim secretariat to make arrangements for convening the first Board meeting by 30 April 2012;

24. Welcomes the offers made by Switzerland and the Republic of Korea to host the first and second meetings of the Board respectively, and invites Parties to host subsequent meetings;

25. Invites Parties to make financial contributions for the start-up of the Green Climate Fund, including administrative costs of the Board and its interim secretariat;

26. Welcomes the generous offers of the Republic of Korea, Germany and Denmark to contribute to the start-up cost of the Green Climate Fund.

 

Annex

Governing instrument for the Green Climate Fund

The Green Climate Fund (hereinafter the “Fund”) is hereby established and will operate in accordance with the following provisions:

I. Objectives and guiding principles

1. Given the urgency and seriousness of climate change, the purpose of the Fund is to make a significant and ambitious contribution to the global efforts towards attaining the goals set by the international community to combat climate change.

2. The Fund will contribute to the achievement of the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In the context of sustainable development, the Fund will promote the paradigm shift towards low-emission and climate-resilient development pathways by providing support to developing countries to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change, taking into account the needs of those developing countries particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.

3. The Fund will be guided by the principles and provisions of the Convention. The Fund will operate in a transparent and accountable manner guided by efficiency and effectiveness. The Fund will play a key role in channelling new, additional, adequate and predictable financial resources to developing countries and will catalyse climate finance, both public and private, and at the international and national levels. The Fund will pursue a country-driven approach and promote and strengthen engagement at the country level through effective involvement of relevant institutions and stakeholders. The Fund will be scalable and flexible and will be a continuously learning institution guided by processes for monitoring and evaluation. The Fund will strive to maximize the impact of its funding for adaptation and mitigation, and seek a balance between the two, while promoting environmental, social, economic and development co-benefits and taking a gender-sensitive approach.

II. Governance and institutional arrangements

A. Relationship to the Conference of the Parties

4. The Fund will be designated as an operating entity of the financial mechanism under Article 11 of the Convention and will be accountable to and function under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties (COP).

5. The Fund will be governed and supervised by a Board that will have full responsibility for funding decisions.

6. Arrangements will be concluded between the COP and the Fund, consistent with Article 11 of the Convention, to ensure that the Fund is accountable to and functions under the guidance of the COP. In order to ensure accountability to the COP, pursuant to Article 11, paragraph 3, the Board will:

  • (a) Receive guidance from the COP, including on matters related to policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria, and matters related thereto;
  • (b) Take appropriate action in response to the guidance received;
  • (c) Submit annual reports to the COP for its consideration and receive further guidance.

B. Legal status

7. In order to operate effectively internationally, the Fund will posses juridical personality and will have such legal capacity as is necessary for the exercise of its functions and the protection of its interests.

8. The Fund will enjoy such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the fulfilment of its purposes. The officials of the Fund will similarly enjoy such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the independent exercise of their official functions in connection with the Fund.

C. Rules of procedure of the Board

1. Composition

9. The Board will have 24 members, composed of an equal number of members from developing and developed country Parties. Representation from developing country Parties will include representatives of relevant United Nations regional groupings and representatives from small island developing States (SIDS) and least developed countries (LDCs).

10. Each Board member will have an alternate member, with alternate members entitled to participate in the meetings of the Board only through the principal member, without the right to vote, unless they are serving as the member. During the absence of the member from all or part of a meeting of the Board, his or her alternate will serve as the member.

2. Selection of Board members

11. The members of the Board and their alternates will be selected by their respective constituency or regional group within a constituency. Members of the Board will have the necessary experience and skills, notably in the areas of climate change and development finance, with due consideration given to gender balance.

3. Term of membership

12. Members and alternate members will serve for a term of three years and be eligible to serve additional terms as determined by their constituency.

4. Chairmanship

13. Two co-chairs of the Board will be elected by the Board members from within their membership to serve for a period of one year, with one being a member from a developed country Party and the other being a member from a developing country Party.

5. Decision-making

14. Decisions of the Board will be taken by consensus of the Board members. The Board will develop procedures for adopting decisions in the event that all efforts at reaching consensus have been exhausted.

6. Quorum

15. A two-thirds majority of Board members must be present at a meeting to constitute a quorum.

7. Observers

16. The Board will make arrangements, including developing and operating accreditation processes, to allow for effective participation by accredited observers in its meetings. The Board will invite, to participate as active observers: two civil society representatives, one each from developing and developed countries, and two private sector representatives, one each from developing and developed countries.

8. Additional rules of procedure

17. Additional rules of procedures will be developed by the Board.

D. Role and functions of the Board

18. The Board of the Fund will:

(a) Oversee the operation of all relevant components of the Fund;

(b) Approve operational modalities, access modalities and funding structures;

(c) Approve specific operational policies and guidelines, including for programming, project cycle, administration, and financial management;

(d) Approve funding in line with the Fund’s principles, criteria, modalities, policies and programmes;

(e) Develop environmental and social safeguards and fiduciary principles and standards that are internationally accepted;

(f) Develop criteria and application processes for the accreditation of implementing entities of the Fund and accredit implementing entities and withdraw such accreditation;

(g) Establish subcommittees and panels and define their terms of reference, as appropriate;

(h) Establish additional thematic windows and/or substructures to address specific activities, as appropriate;

(i) Establish a framework for the monitoring and evaluation of performance and the financial accountability of activities supported by the Fund and any necessary external audits;

(j) Review and approve the administrative budget of the Fund and arrange for performance reviews and audits;

(k) Appoint the Executive Director of the secretariat;

(l) Appoint the head of the evaluation unit and the heads of all accountability units;

(m) Receive guidance and take action in response to any guidance from the COP and prepare annual reports to the COP on its activities;

(n) Develop working and coordination arrangements with other relevant bodies under the Convention and other relevant international institutions;

(o) Select, appoint and enter into legal and administrative arrangements with the trustee;

(p) Exercise such other functions as may be appropriate to fulfil the objectives of the Fund.

E. Secretariat

1. Establishment of the secretariat

19. The Fund will establish a secretariat, which will be fully independent. The secretariat will service and be accountable to the Board. It will have effective management capabilities to execute the day-to-day operations of the Fund.

20. The secretariat will be headed by an Executive Director with the necessary experiences and skills, who will be appointed by and be accountable to the Board. The Board will approve the job description and qualifications for the Executive Director. The Executive Director will be selected through a merit-based, open and transparent process.

21. The secretariat will be staffed with professional staff with relevant experience. The staff selection will be managed by the Executive Director and will be open, transparent and based on merit, taking into account geographical and gender balance.

22. The selection of the host country of the Fund will be an open and transparent process. The selection of the host country will be endorsed by the COP.

2. Functions

23. The secretariat will be responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Fund, providing administrative, legal and financial expertise. In particular, the secretariat will:

  • (a) Organize and execute all administrative duties;
  • (b) Report information on the Fund’s activities;
  • (c) Liaise with members, implementing entities, and cooperating bilateral and multilateral institutions and agencies;
  • (d) Prepare performance reports on the implementation of activities under the Fund;
  • (e) Develop the work programme and annual administrative budget of the secretariat and trustee and submit them for approval by the Board;
  • (f) Operationalize the project and programme cycle processes;
  • (g) Prepare financial agreements related to the specific financing instrument to be concluded with an implementing entity;
  • (h) Monitor the financial risks of the outstanding portfolio;
  • (i) Work with the trustee to support the Board to enable it to carry out its responsibilities;
  • (j) Carry out monitoring and evaluation functions;
  • (k) Support the Board in arranging replenishment processes;
  • (l) Establish and run effective knowledge management practices;
  • (m) Perform any other functions assigned by the Board.

F. Trustee

24. The Fund will have a trustee with administrative competence to manage the financial assets of the Fund. The trustee will maintain appropriate financial records and will prepare financial statements and other reports required by the Board, in accordance with internationally accepted fiduciary standards.

25. The trustee will administer the assets of the Fund only for the purpose of, and in accordance with, the relevant decisions of the Board. The trustee will hold the assets of the Fund separate and apart from the assets of the trustee, but may commingle them for administrative and investment purposes with other assets maintained by the trustee. The trustee will establish and maintain separate records and accounts in order to identify the assets of the Fund.

26. The World Bank will serve as interim trustee for the Fund, subject to a review three years after the operationalization of the Fund.

27. The trustee will be accountable to the Board for the performance of its responsibilities as trustee for the Fund.

III. Administrative costs

28. The Fund will finance the operating costs of the Board, secretariat and trustee.

IV. Financial inputs

29. The Fund will receive financial inputs from developed country Parties to the Convention.

30. The Fund may also receive financial inputs from a variety of other sources, public and private, including alternative sources.

V. Operational modalities

31. The Fund will provide simplified and improved access to funding, including direct access, basing its activities on a country-driven approach and will encourage the involvement of relevant stakeholders, including vulnerable groups and addressing gender aspects.

32. The Board will steer the Fund’s operations so that they evolve with the Fund’s scale and maturity and will exercise flexibility to allow the Fund to evolve over time and become the main global fund for climate change finance.

A. Complementarity and coherence

33. The Fund shall operate in the context of appropriate arrangements between itself and other existing funds under the Convention, and between itself and other funds, entities, and channels of climate change financing outside the Fund.

34. The Board will develop methods to enhance complementarity between the activities of the Fund and the activities of other relevant bilateral, regional and global funding mechanisms and institutions, to better mobilize the full range of financial and technical capacities. The Fund will promote coherence in programming at the national level through appropriate mechanisms. The Fund will also initiate discussions on coherence in climate finance delivery with other relevant multilateral entities.

B. Eligibility

35. All developing country Parties to the Convention are eligible to receive resources from the Fund. The Fund will finance agreed full and agreed incremental costs for activities to enable and support enhanced action on adaptation, mitigation (including REDD-plus), technology development and transfer (including carbon capture and storage), capacitybuilding and the preparation of national reports by developing countries.

36. The Fund will support developing countries in pursuing project-based and programmatic approaches in accordance with climate change strategies and plans, such as low-emission development strategies or plans, nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs), national adaptation plans of action (NAPAs), national adaptation plans (NAPs) and other related activities.

C. Funding windows and fund structure

37. The Fund will have thematic funding windows. Initially, the Fund will have windows for adaptation and mitigation. An integrated approach to funding mitigation and adaptation will be used to allow for cross-cutting projects and programmes.

38. The Board shall also ensure adequate resources for capacity-building and technology development and transfer. The Fund will also provide resources for innovative and replicable approaches.

39. The Board will consider the need for additional windows. The Board will have the authority to add, modify and remove additional windows and substructures or facilities as appropriate.

1. Readiness and preparatory support

40. The Fund will provide resources for readiness and preparatory activities and technical assistance, such as the preparation or strengthening of low-emission development strategies or plans, NAMAs, NAPs, NAPAs and for in-country institutional strengthening, including the strengthening of capacities for country coordination and to meet fiduciary principles and standards and environmental and social safeguards, in order to enable countries to directly access the Fund.

2. Private sector

41. The Fund will have a private sector facility that enables it to directly and indirectly finance private sector mitigation and adaptation activities at the national, regional and international levels.

42. The operation of the facility will be consistent with a country-driven approach.

43. The facility will promote the participation of private sector actors in developing countries, in particular local actors, including small- and medium-sized enterprises and local financial intermediaries. The facility will also support activities to enable private sector involvement in SIDS and LDCs. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries.

44. The Board will develop the necessary arrangements, including access modalities, to operationalize the facility.

D. Access modalities and accreditation

45. Access to Fund resources will be through national, regional and international implementing entities accredited by the Board. Recipient countries will determine the mode of access and both modalities can be used simultaneously.

46. Recipient countries may designate a national authority. This national designated authority will recommend to the Board funding proposals in the context of national climate strategies and plans, including through consultation processes. The national designated authorities will be consulted on other funding proposals for consideration prior to submission to the Fund, to ensure consistency with national climate strategies and plans.

1. Direct access

47. Recipient countries will nominate competent subnational, national and regional implementing entities for accreditation to receive funding. The Board will consider additional modalities that further enhance direct access, including through funding entities with a view to enhancing country ownership of projects and programmes.

2. International access

8. Recipient countries will also be able to access the Fund through accredited international entities, including United Nations agencies, multilateral development banks, international financial institutions and regional institutions.

3. Accreditation

49. The Board will develop, manage and oversee an accreditation process for all implementing entities based on specific accreditation criteria that reflect the Fund’s fiduciary principles and standards and environmental and social safeguards.

E. Allocation

50. The Board will balance the allocation of resources between adaptation and mitigation activities under the Fund and ensure appropriate allocation of resources for other activities.

51. A results-based approach will be an important criterion for allocating resources.

52. In allocating resources for adaptation, the Board will take into account the urgent and immediate needs of developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, including LDCs, SIDS and African States, using minimum allocation floors for these countries as appropriate. The Board will aim for appropriate geographical balance.

F. Programming and approval processes

53. The Fund will have a streamlined programming and approval process to enable timely disbursement. The Board will develop simplified processes for the approval of proposals for certain activities, in particular small-scale activities.

VI. Financial instruments

54. The Fund will provide financing in the form of grants and concessional lending, and through other modalities, instruments or facilities as may be approved by the Board. Financing will be tailored to cover the identifiable additional costs of the investment necessary to make the project viable. The Fund will seek to catalyse additional public and private finance through its activities at the national and international levels.

55. The Fund may employ results-based financing approaches, including, in particular for incentivizing mitigation actions, payment for verified results, where appropriate.

56. Financial management practices and financing agreements will be in keeping with the Fund’s fiduciary principles and standards and environmental and social safeguards to be adopted by the Board. The Board will develop an appropriate risk management policy for funding and financial instruments.

VII. Monitoring

57. The programmes and projects, as well as other activities, funded by the Fund will be regularly monitored for impact, efficiency and effectiveness in line with rules and procedures established by the Board. The use of participatory monitoring involving stakeholders will be encouraged.

58. A results measurement framework with guidelines and appropriate performance indicators will be approved by the Board. Performance against these indicators will be reviewed periodically in order to support the continuous improvement of the Fund’s impact, effectiveness and operational performance.

VIII. Evaluation

59. There will be periodic independent evaluations of the performance of the Fund in order to provide an objective assessment of the results of the Fund, including its funded activities and its effectiveness and efficiency. The purpose of these independent evaluations is to inform decision-making by the Board and to identify and disseminate lessons learned. The results of the periodic evaluations will be published.

60. To this end, the Board will establish an operationally independent evaluation unit as part of the core structure of the Fund. The head of the unit will be selected by, and will report to, the Board. The frequency and types of evaluation to be conducted will be specified by the unit in agreement with the Board.

61. Reports of the Fund’s independent evaluation unit will be provided to the COP for purposes of periodic reviews of the financial mechanism of the Convention.

62. The COP may commission an independent assessment of the overall performance of the Fund, including Board performance.

IX. Fiduciary standards

63. The Board will agree on, adopt, and ensure the application of best practice fiduciary principles and standards to the Fund’s entities, the trustee’s function related to the Fund, and to all operations, projects and programmes financed by the Fund, including the implementing entities.

64. The Fund will support the strengthening of capacities in recipient countries, where needed, to be able to meet the Fund’s fiduciary principles and standards, based on modalities that will be established by the Board.

X. Environmental and social safeguards

65. The Board will agree on and adopt best practice environmental and social safeguards, which shall be applied to all programmes and projects financed using the resources of the Fund.

66. The Fund will support the strengthening of capacities in recipient countries, where needed, to enable them to meet the Fund’s environmental and social safeguards, based on modalities that shall be developed by the Board.

XI. Accountability mechanisms

67. The Fund’s operations will be subject to an information disclosure policy that will be developed by the Board.

68. The Board will establish an independent integrity unit, to work with the secretariat and report to the Board, to investigate allegations of fraud and corruption in coordination with relevant counterpart authorities.

69. The Board will establish an independent redress mechanism that will report to the Board. The mechanism will receive complaints related to the operation of the Fund and will evaluate and make recommendations.

XII. Expert and technical advice

70. In carrying out its functions the Board will develop mechanisms to draw on appropriate expert and technical advice, including from the relevant thematic bodies established under the Convention, as appropriate.

XIII. Stakeholder input and participation

71. The Board will develop mechanisms to promote the input and participation of stakeholders, including private-sector actors, civil society organizations, vulnerable groups, women and indigenous peoples, in the design, development and implementation of the strategies and activities to be financed by the Fund.

XIV. Termination of the Fund

72. Termination of the Fund will be approved by the COP based on a recommendation of the Board.

Gender reference

Further urges Parties to give full consideration to the positive and negative impacts of the implementation of response measures to mitigate climate change on society and on all vulnerable groups, in particular women and children.

Elaborated language

II. Enhanced action on mitigation 

F. Economic and social consequences of response measures

Recalling the ultimate objective of the Convention,

Also recalling and reaffirming decisions 1/CP.13 and 1/CP.16,

Also reaffirming the importance of the objective of the Convention, and the relevant principles and provisions of the Convention related to the economic and social consequences of response measures, in particular its Articles 2, 3 and 4,

Affirming that there is a need to give full consideration to what actions are necessary, including actions related to funding, insurance and the transfer of technology, to meet the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties arising from the impact of the implementation of response measures,

Acknowledging that response measures to combat climate change may have negative environmental, social and economic consequences, and that all developing countries face economic and social consequences of response measures to climate change,

Reaffirming the principle of sovereignty of States in international cooperation to address climate change,

Noting that policies and measures to address climate change should be supportive of the economic and social development of developing country Parties,

Reaffirming that developed country Parties should take the lead in combating climate change and the adverse effects thereof,

Also reaffirming that developed country Parties are urged to strive to implement policies and measures to respond to climate change in such a way as to avoid negative social and economic consequences for developing country Parties, taking into account Article 3 of the Convention, and to assist these Parties to address such consequences by providing support, including financial resources, transfer of technology and capacity-building, in accordance with Article 4 of the Convention, to build up the resilience of societies and economies negatively affected by response measures,

87. Recognizes that social and economic development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of developing countries;

88. Urges Parties in implementing their policies and measures to promote a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities and strategies;

89. Also urges developed country Parties to assist developing country Parties to promote economic diversification in the context of sustainable development, especially for those listed in Article 4, paragraphs 8 and 9, of the Convention;

90. Further urges Parties to give full consideration to the positive and negative impacts of the implementation of response measures to mitigate climate change on society and on all vulnerable groups, in particular women and children;

91. Recognizes decision 8/CP.17 that establishes the Forum to Implement the Work Programme on the Impact of the Implementation of Response Measures, and consolidates all progressive discussions related to response measures under the Convention.

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