Gender Mandates in Climate Policy

Before you start

In the last few years, the UNFCCC – the only one out of three Rio Conventions that lacked mandates on women’s rights and gender equality from the outset – has made major strides in integrating gender across all thematic areas in the negotiations. Most notable in recent years are the launch in 2014 of the Lima Work Programme on Gender and the integration of gender in the Paris Agreement as a preambular principle for all climate action, as well as in relation to adaptation and capacity building. Decisions have aimed to enhance gender equality via both policy and practice, encouraging gender balance in decision-making as well as responsiveness to gender issues in the development, implementation and monitoring of climate change policies and actions.

Displaying 51 - 60 of 73

Gender reference

See elaborated language.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 36/CP.7, 1/CP.16, 23/CP.18, 18/CP.20, 1/CP.21 and 21/CP.22, as well as the Paris Agreement,

Reaffirming the General Assembly resolution on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,

Noting that gender-responsive climate policy continues to require further strengthening in all activities concerning adaptation, mitigation and related means of implementation (finance, technology development and transfer, and capacity-building), as well as decision-making on the implementation of climate policies,

Also noting that, notwithstanding the progress made by Parties in implementing the decisions referred to above, there is a need for women to be represented in all aspects of the Convention process and a need for gender mainstreaming through all relevant targets and goals in activities under the Convention as an important contribution to increasing their effectiveness,

Acknowledging with appreciation the important role of the extended Lima work programme on gender in integrating gender considerations into the work of Parties and the secretariat in implementing the Convention, and the role of the gender action plan (contained in the annex) in supporting the implementation of gender-related decisions and mandates under the UNFCCC process,

Recalling decision 21/CP.22, paragraph 27, which mandated the development of a gender action plan in order to support the implementation of gender-related decisions and mandates under the UNFCCC process, which may include priority areas, key activities and indicators, timelines for implementation, responsible and key actors and indicative resource requirements for each activity, and the further elaboration of its review and monitoring processes,

Also recalling that Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights as well as gender equality,

Taking into account the imperative of a just transition of the workforce when implementing the gender action plan,

1. Adopts the gender action plan, contained in the annex, under the Lima work programme on gender;

2. Invites Parties, members of constituted bodies, United Nations organizations, observers and other stakeholders to participate and engage in implementing the gender action plan with a view to advancing towards the goal of mainstreaming a gender perspective in all elements of climate action;

3. Welcomes the technical paper prepared by the secretariat on achieving the goal of gender balance;

4. Notes the lack of progress made in delegations and constituted bodies towards the goal of gender balance;

5. Requests the secretariat to prepare, for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its session to be held in November 2019, a synthesis report on the implementation of the gender action plan, identifying areas of progress, areas for improvement and further work to be undertaken in subsequent action plans, so as to elaborate recommendations for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its twentyfifth session (November 2019) in the context of the review referred to in paragraph 7 below;

6. Decides that the topics of the annual in-session workshops to be held in conjunction with the sessions of the subsidiary bodies taking place in the first sessional period of 2018 and 20193 will be based on the submission referred to in activity E.1 of priority area E of the gender action plan (see table 5) and on the short- and long-term impacts of the gender action plan, which may also be informed by the synthesis report referred to in paragraph 5 above, respectively;

7. Also decides to review, at its twenty-fifth session, the implementation of the gender action plan in the context of the review of the Lima work programme on gender4 so as to consider the next steps, including an assessment of the impacts of the gender action plan;

8. Invites Parties and relevant organizations to participate and engage in the implementation of gender-related activities within the gender action plan, including enhancing the capacity of the gender focal point of the secretariat;

9. Takes note of the estimated budgetary implications of the activities to be undertaken by the secretariat referred to in paragraphs 1, 5 and 6 above; 10. Requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources. 

Annex

Gender action plan

1. By decision 21/CP.22, paragraph 27, the Subsidiary Body for Implementation was requested to develop a gender action plan (GAP) in order to support the implementation of gender-related decisions and mandates in the UNFCCC process, which may include priority areas, key activities and indicators, timelines for implementation, responsible and key actors and indicative resource requirements for each activity, and to further elaborate its review and monitoring processes.

2. The GAP, created under the Lima work programme on gender, seeks to advance women’s full, equal and meaningful participation and promote gender-responsive climate policy and the mainstreaming of a gender perspective in the implementation of the Convention and the work of Parties, the secretariat, United Nations entities and all stakeholders at all levels.

3. Gender-responsive climate policy requires further strengthening in all activities concerning adaptation, mitigation and related means of implementation (finance, technology development and transfer, and capacity-building) as well as decision-making on the implementation of climate policies. The GAP recognizes the need for women to be represented in all aspects of the UNFCCC process and the need for gender mainstreaming through all relevant targets and goals in activities under the Convention as an important contribution to increasing their effectiveness.

4. The GAP recognizes that gender-related action is being progressed across all areas of the Convention and with respect to the Paris Agreement. Many of the activities in the GAP have been the subject of action by a variety of relevant organizations and will continue to require further action beyond the time frame of the plan.

5. The activities in the GAP vary in terms of measurability, and Parties are at various stages in terms of progress on this agenda. Some actions may be afforded differing degrees of prioritization according to the nature and scale of the climate policies being implemented and the capacities of Parties. The GAP recognizes that climate action under the Convention is a Party-driven process. Priority areas

6. Parties, the secretariat and relevant organizations are invited to undertake the activities contained in the GAP, as appropriate. The GAP sets out, in five priority areas, the activities that will drive the achievement of its objectives.

A. Capacity-building, knowledge-sharing and communication

7. The GAP seeks to enhance the understanding and expertise of stakeholders on the systematic integration of gender considerations and the application of such understanding and expertise in the thematic areas under the Convention and the Paris Agreement and in policies, programmes and projects on the ground.

B. Gender balance, participation and women’s leadership

8. The GAP seeks to achieve and sustain the full, equal and meaningful participation of women in the UNFCCC process.

C. Coherence

9. The GAP seeks to strengthen the integration of gender considerations within the work of UNFCCC bodies, the secretariat and other United Nation entities and stakeholders towards the consistent implementation of gender-related mandates and activities.

D. Gender-responsive implementation and means of implementation

10. The GAP aims to ensure the respect, promotion and consideration of gender equality and the empowerment of women in the implementation of the Convention and the Paris Agreement.

E. Monitoring and reporting

11. The GAP seeks to improve tracking in relation to the implementation of and reporting on gender-related mandates under the UNFCCC. 

See Table 1 for full list of Gender Action Plan activities.

Gender reference

2. Acknowledges the work undertaken by the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network in supporting the implementation of the Paris Agreement, and looks forward to enhanced efforts in this regard in the future, taking into consideration gender, endogenous technologies, including knowledge from local communities and indigenous people, and the balance between adaptation and mitigation;

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 1/CP.18, 13/CP.18, 17/CP.20, 12/CP.21 and 15/CP.22,

1. Welcomes the joint annual report of the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network for 2017, including the key messages and recommendations contained therein, and the progress of their work to facilitate the effective implementation of the Technology Mechanism;

2. Acknowledges the work undertaken by the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network in supporting the implementation of the Paris Agreement, and looks forward to enhanced efforts in this regard in the future, taking into consideration gender, endogenous technologies, including knowledge from local communities and indigenous peoples, and the balance between adaptation and mitigation;

3. Welcomes with appreciation the inclusion in the joint annual report referred to in paragraph 1 above of information on challenges and lessons learned by the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network in implementing their respective mandates;

4. Takes note of the updated procedures for preparing the joint annual report of the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network, as contained in annex I to the joint annual report referred to in paragraph 1 above;

5. Requests the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network to carry out monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of the implementation of their respective mandates;

6. Notes with appreciation the collaboration between the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network, and encourages the two bodies to continue to strengthen the collaboration across the entire technology cycle; 

I. Activities and performance of the Technology Executive Committee in 2017

7. Welcomes the progress made by the Technology Executive Committee in advancing the implementation of its rolling workplan for 2016–2018,2 including in the areas of: adaptation; climate technology financing; emerging and cross-cutting issues; innovation and research, development and demonstration; mitigation; and technology needs assessments;

8. Invites Parties and all relevant stakeholders working on technology development and transfer, when implementing climate technology action, to consider the key messages and recommendations of the Technology Executive Committee, noting that these are in the areas of innovation, industrial energy and material efficiency, and technology needs assessments;

9. Also invites the Technology Executive Committee to continue to enhance the linkages between the technology needs assessments process and the nationally determined contributions process, and between the technology needs assessments process and the national adaptation plans process; 

10. Encourages the Technology Executive Committee to continue strengthening collaboration with other constituted bodies under the Convention, including the Adaptation Committee and the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts;

11. Invites the Technology Executive Committee to enhance its communication and outreach strategy;

II. Activities and performance of the Climate Technology Centre and Network in 2017

12. Welcomes the progress made by the Climate Technology Centre and Network in 2017 in implementing its programme of work, including by enhancing its response to the increased requests for technical assistance; broadening the network membership; and increasing the use of expertise sourced from the network to address the requests for technical assistance;

13. Encourages the Climate Technology Centre and Network to continue strengthening partnership and collaboration with relevant stakeholders;

14. Notes that the Climate Technology Centre and Network continues to face challenges that need attention regarding sustainable funding for implementing its functions, and that further financial support should be provided, recalling decision 2/CP.17, paragraphs 139 and 141;

15. Welcomes with appreciation the ongoing collaboration between the Climate Technology Centre and Network and the Green Climate Fund, wherein the services and expertise of the Climate Technology Centre and Network can strengthen proposals seeking support from the Readiness and Preparatory Support Programme and the Project Preparation Facility of the Green Climate Fund;

16. Welcomes the engagement of the Climate Technology Centre and Network with the Global Environment Facility and multilateral development banks regarding collaborative activities, including the implementation of technical assistance requests with scalable investment potential;

17. Invites the Climate Technology Centre and Network to continue providing support for enhancing the capacity of national designated entities;

18. Also invites Parties that have not yet nominated their national designated entities to communicate their nomination to the secretariat through their national focal point.

 

 

Gender reference

Welcoming the call by the Compliance Committee for Parties to keep in mind the goal of promoting gender balance when making nominations for membership of the Committee

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol,

Recalling Article 18 of the Kyoto Protocol,

Also recalling decisions 27/CMP.1, 4/CMP.2 and 4/CMP.4,

Having considered the annual report of the Compliance Committee to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol,

Recognizing the importance of elaborating the steps and time frames relating to the consideration by the enforcement branch of, and its decision on, disagreements on whether to apply adjustments to inventories under Article 5, paragraph 2, of the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to decision 27/CMP.1, annex, section X, paragraph 5,

Welcoming the call by the Compliance Committee for Parties to keep in mind the goal of promoting gender balance when making nominations for membership of the Committee,

Affirming that the annex to decision 27/CMP.1 should be read in a manner that enables the Compliance Committee to effectively fulfil its mandate in relation to the second commitment period,

Expressing its appreciation to Parties that have contributed to the funding of the work of the Compliance Committee,

  1. Notes with appreciation the work of the Compliance Committee during the reporting period;
  2. Adopts the amendments to the rules of procedure of the Compliance Committee contained in the annex, in accordance with the provisions of decision 27/CMP.1, annex, section III, paragraph 2(d);
  3. Clarifies that for the purposes of the second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, references to Article 3, paragraph 1, of the Kyoto Protocol contained in the annex to decision 27/CMP.1 shall be read as referring to Article 3, paragraph 1 bis, in the Doha Amendment, contained in decision 1/CMP.8, annex I;
  4. Notes the strong interest of the Compliance Committee in the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol concluding adequate legal arrangements on privileges and immunities that would cover members and alternate members of the Committee and looks forward to considering the outcomes of the work of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation on such arrangements for individuals serving on constituted bodies established under the Kyoto Protocol.

 

Annex

Amendments to the rules of procedure of the Compliance Committee of the Kyoto Protocol

The “Rules of procedure of the Compliance Committee of the Kyoto Protocol” contained in the annex to decision 4/CMP.2, as amended by decision 4/CMP.4, are further amended as follows:

  1. Amendment to rule 2
  1. The following text should be inserted after rule 2, subparagraph (i):

“(i bis) “Party involved” means a Party that disagrees with adjustments to its inventory under Article 5, paragraph 2, of the Kyoto Protocol, as calculated and recommended by an expert review team in accordance with the procedures set out in paragraphs 79 and 80 of the “Guidelines for review under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol”, contained in the annex to decision 22/CMP.1;”

  1. Amendment to section 12
  1. The following text should be inserted in section 12 after rule 25 bis:

Rule 25 ter

  1. Where there is a disagreement on whether to apply adjustments to inventories under Article 5, paragraph 2, of the Kyoto Protocol under section X, paragraph 5, this rule shall apply. In addition, the other relevant rules and other relevant provisions contained in the annex to decision 27/CMP.1 shall be applied mutatis mutandis, as appropriate.
  2. Within seven days of having received, through the secretariat, a report of an expert review team under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol in accordance with section VI, paragraph 1 or 3, that includes a disagreement on whether to apply adjustments to an inventory under Article 5, paragraph 2, of the Kyoto Protocol, the bureau shall request the secretariat to notify forthwith:
    1. Members and alternate members of the enforcement branch of the disagreement and send them all available materials;
    2. Members  and  alternate  members  of  the  facilitative  branch  of  the disagreement;
  3. The Party involved that the disagreement will be considered by the enforcement branch.
  4. The Party involved may make a written submission within four weeks from the date of receipt of the notification referred to in paragraph 2(c) above, including rebuttal of information submitted to the enforcement branch.
  5. If so requested in writing by the Party involved within four weeks from the date of receipt of the notification referred to in paragraph 2(c) above, the enforcement branch shall hold a hearing, which shall take place within four weeks from the date of receipt of that request or the written submission referred to in paragraph 3 above, whichever is the later. The Party involved may present expert testimony or opinion at the hearing. Such a hearing shall be held in public, unless the enforcement branch decides, of its own accord or at the request of the Party involved, that part or all of the hearing shall take place in private.
  6. The enforcement branch shall adopt its decision on the disagreement referred to in paragraph 2 above within 11 weeks of the notification referred to in paragraph 2(c) above or within three weeks of the hearing referred to in paragraph 4 above, whichever is the shorter.
  1. The Party involved may, at any time before the adoption of the decision referred to in paragraph 5 above, accept, at the hearing referred to in paragraph 4 above or in writing, the adjustments as calculated and recommended by the expert review team referred to in paragraph 2 above. Such acceptance shall result in the resolution of the disagreement referred to in paragraph 2 above and shall be noted by the enforcement branch in its decision on the matter.
  2. If the report referred to in paragraph 2 above also indicates a question of implementation that is allocated to the enforcement branch and to which the expedited procedure set out in section X, paragraph 1, applies, the enforcement branch may extend any time frames provided for in this rule to align both procedures. The enforcement branch shall make every effort to minimize any resulting delay and, in any event, shall decide on the disagreement referred to in paragraph 2 above no later than at the time of the adoption of the final decision on the question of implementation in accordance with section X, paragraph 1(f).
  3. The period of time stipulated in section IX, paragraph 3, shall apply only if, in the opinion of the enforcement branch, it does not interfere with the adoption of the decision in accordance with paragraph 5 above.”

 

Gender reference

Affirms the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacity-building activities

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol,

Recalling decisions 6/CMP.4 and 11/CMP.6,

Acknowledging that capacity-building for developing countries is essential to enable them to participate in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol,

Having considered the information in documents prepared by the secretariat in support of the second comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries established under decision 2/CP.7,

Noting that key needs remain to be addressed to enable developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, African countries and small island developing States, to effectively participate in the clean development mechanism,

Reaffirming the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacity-building activities,

Noting that a range of the priority areas identified in decisions 29/CMP.1 and 2/CP.7 are being addressed by Parties and multilateral and bilateral agencies, especially as they relate to building capacity to develop and implement clean development mechanism project activities,

Recalling the commitment of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, welcoming the role the private sector plays in implementing the capacity-building activities identified in decisions 29/CMP.1 and 2/CP.7 and encouraging the private sector to continue its work in this field,

  1. Decides that the scope of needs and priority areas identified in the framework for capacity-building in developing countries established under decision 2/CP.7, and the priority areas for capacity-building relating to the participation of developing countries in the clean development mechanism contained in decision 29/CMP.1, remain relevant and continue to be the basis for and to guide the implementation of capacity-building activities in developing countries;
  2. Encourages Parties to further improve the implementation of capacity-building activities relating to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and to report on the effectiveness and sustainability of related capacity-building programmes;
  3. Invites Parties that are in a position to do so, multilateral, bilateral and international agencies and the private sector to continue to provide technical and financial resources in a coordinated manner to support capacity-building activities in developing countries as they relate to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, addressing the following challenges, inter alia:
    1. The  geographical  distribution  of  clean  development  mechanism  project activities;
    2. The lack of technical expertise to estimate changes in carbon stock in soils;
    3. The need to train and retain experts to plan and implement project activities;
  4. Invites Parties included in Annex II to the Convention in a position to do so to provide capacity-building support for the planning and implementation of clean development mechanism project activities at the national and regional levels, as appropriate;
  5. Decides that the further implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries should be improved at the systemic, institutional and individual levels, as appropriate, by:
    1. Ensuring consultations with stakeholders throughout the entire process, from the design of the clean development mechanism project activities to their implementation;
    2. Enhancing the integration of capacity-building needs relating to participation in the Kyoto Protocol into national development strategies and plans;
    3. Increased country-driven coordination of capacity-building activities;
    4. Strengthened networking and information sharing among developing countries, especially through South–South and triangular cooperation;
  6. Encourages cooperative efforts between developing country Parties and developed country Parties to conceptualize and implement capacity-building activities relating to participation in the clean development mechanism;
  7. Also encourages relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, in particular the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the Economic Commission for Africa, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the United Nations Institute for Training and Research and the UNFCCC secretariat, to continue enhancing and coordinating their capacity-building activities under the Nairobi Framework,2 including support for building skills;
  8. Decides to conclude the second comprehensive review and initiate the third comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries, taking into account decisions 1/CP.16 and 2/CP.17 as they relate to capacity-building, at the forty-second session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (June 2015), with a view to completing the review at the twelfth session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (November– December 2016).

Gender reference

Reaffirms the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacity building activities.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 2/CP.7, 2/CP.10, 4/CP.12, 1/CP.16 and 10/CP.16,

Acknowledging that capacity-building for developing countries is essential to enable them to participate fully in, and implement effectively their commitments under, the Convention,

Having considered the information in documents prepared by the secretariat in support of the second comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries,

 

Noting that while progress has been made, gaps still remain in addressing the priority issues identified in the framework for capacity-building in developing countries as contained in decision 2/CP.7,

Reaffirming that capacity-building should be a continuous, progressive and iterative process that is participatory, country-driven and consistent with national priorities and circumstances,

Also reaffirming the importance of taking into account gender aspects and acknowledging the role and needs of youth and persons with disabilities in capacity-building activities,

  1. Decides that the scope of needs and priority areas identified in the framework for capacity-building in developing countries as contained in decision 2/CP.7 and the key factors identified in decision 2/CP.10 remain relevant and continue to be the basis for and guide the implementation of capacity-building activities in developing countries;
  2. Also decides that capacity-building priorities and needs in developing countries, including those emerging from decision 1/CP.16, should be taken into account in the further implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries;
  3. Invites relevant United Nations agencies and intergovernmental organizations to continue providing support for capacity-building efforts in developing countries, emphasizing and stressing the need for the full involvement of developing countries in the conception and development of such activities
  4. Also invites Parties included in Annex II to the Convention and other Parties that are in a position to do so, multilateral, bilateral and international agencies and the private sector to continue providing financial resources to support capacity-building action in developing countries;
  5. Further invites Parties to enhance reporting on best practices related to capacity-building in their national communications, submissions and other relevant documents, with a view to furthering learning and broadening the impact of capacity-building activities;
  6. Decides that further implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries should be improved at the systemic, institutional and individual levels as appropriate, by the following:
    1. Ensuring consultations with stakeholders throughout the entire process of activities, from the design of activities to their implementation and monitoring and evaluation;
    2. Enhancing integration of climate change issues and capacity-building needs into national development strategies, plans and budgets;
    3. Increased country-driven coordination of capacity-building activities;
    4. Strengthened networking and information sharing among developing countries, especially through South–South and triangular cooperation;
  7. Also decides to conclude the second comprehensive review and to initiate the third comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries, taking into account decisions 1/CP.16 and 2/CP.17 as they relate to capacity-building, at the forty-second session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (June 2015) with a view to completing the review at the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties (November–December 2016).

Gender reference

As part of the MoU between the UNFCCC Conference of Parties and UNEP (selected host), this decision reiterated the mission of the CTCN to take into account gender considerations in the preparation and implementation of technology projects and strategies. Additionally, it decided that the constitution of the CTCN Advisory Board should take into account the need to achieve gender balance in accordance with decisions 36/CP.7 and 23/CP.18.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling decisions 1/CP.16 and 2/CP.17,

1. Notes with appreciation the completion of the selection process for the host of the Climate Technology Centre, which had the support of the evaluation panel nominated by the Technology Executive Committee from within its membership, the Subsidiary Body for Implementation and the secretariat and involved the valuable participation of the nine proponents that responded to the call for proposals for hosting the Climate Technology Centre;

2. Decides that the United Nations Environment Programme, as the leader of the consortium of partner institutions, is hereby selected as the host of the Climate Technology Centre for an initial term of five years, with possible renewal if so decided by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-third session;

3. Adopts the memorandum of understanding between the Conference of the Parties and the United Nations Environment Programme regarding the hosting of the Climate Technology Centre, as contained in annex I to this decision;

4. Authorizes the Executive Secretary to sign, on behalf of the Conference of the Parties, the memorandum of understanding referred to in paragraph 3 above;

5. Decides that the Advisory Board of the Climate Technology Centre and Network is hereby established, with the constitution contained in annex II to this decision and with the functions contained in decision 2/CP.17, annex VII, paragraphs 8 and 9;

6. Requests the United Nations Environment Programme, as the host of the Climate Technology Centre, to convene and facilitate the first meeting of the Advisory Board as soon as possible in 2013, preferably prior to the thirty-eighth sessions of the subsidiary bodies;

7. Requests the Advisory Board to determine at its first meeting its operational modalities and rules of procedure for consideration by the subsidiary bodies at their subsequent sessions;

8. Takes note that the United Nations Environment Programme, as the host of the Climate Technology Centre, will ensure that the necessary arrangements are in place for the meetings of the Advisory Board, including privileges and immunities for members of the Board consistent with the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations;11

9. Encourages the United Nations Environment Programme, as the host of the Climate Technology Centre, to make the necessary arrangements to promptly launch the work of the Climate Technology Centre upon the conclusion of the eighteenth session of the Conference of the Parties, including, inter alia, the appointment of a Director of the Climate Technology Centre, who will facilitate the timely recruitment of the staff of the Climate Technology Centre;

10. Agrees that the United Nations Environment Programme, as the host of the Climate Technology Centre, shall provide periodic updates on matters regarding its role as the host of the Climate Technology Centre and make this information available in the annual report of the Climate Technology Centre and Network to the Conference of the Parties through the subsidiary bodies; such reports should also address the concerns raised by Parties on issues such as to enhance the in-house capacity of the host organization on technologies for adaptation;

11. Requests the Climate Technology Centre to consult with the Technology Executive Committee on establishing procedures for preparing a joint annual report as requested by decision 2/CP.17, with a view to making their joint annual report available to the Conference of the Parties through the subsidiary bodies at their thirty-ninth sessions;

12. Invites Parties to nominate their national designated entities for the development and transfer of technologies pursuant to decision 2/CP.17, annex VII, and decision 4/CP.13, paragraph 8, and to communicate this information to the secretariat by 29 March 2013, in order to facilitate the operationalization of the Climate Technology Centre and Network;

13. Reiterates that the financial support to the Climate Technology Centre and Network shall be provided in accordance with decision 2/CP.17, paragraphs 139–141;

14. Reaffirms that the Climate Technology Centre and Network shall be accountable to, and under the guidance of, the Conference of the Parties through the Advisory Board, and may perform such other activities as may be necessary to carry out its functions in accordance with decisions 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17 and other relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties;

15. Reiterates that the Advisory Board of the Climate Technology Centre and Network will put in place the rules and procedures to monitor, assess and evaluate the timeliness and appropriateness of the responses of the Climate Technology Centre and Network to requests by developing country Parties in accordance with decision 2/CP.17, annex VII, paragraphs 7, 9(e) and 20.

Annex I

Memorandum of Understanding between the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations Environment Programme regarding the hosting of the Climate Technology Centre This Memorandum of Understanding

(hereinafter referred to as the “MOU”) is concluded between the Conference of the Parties (hereinafter referred to as “the COP”) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (hereinafter referred to as the Convention) and the United Nations Environment Programme (hereinafter referred to as “UNEP”) (collectively referred to as the Parties) regarding the hosting of the Climate Technology Centre (hereinafter referred to as “the CTC”).

Preamble

Whereas the COP, by decision 1/CP.16, established a Technology Mechanism, consisting of a Technology Executive Committee and a Climate Technology Centre and Network (hereinafter referred to as the CTCN),

Whereas the COP, by decision 2/CP.17, adopted the terms of reference of the CTCN,

Whereas the mission of the CTCN is to stimulate technology cooperation and to enhance the development and transfer of technologies and to assist developing country Parties at their request, consistent with their respective capabilities and national circumstances and priorities, in order to build or strengthen their capacity to identify technology needs, to facilitate the preparation and implementation of technology projects and strategies, taking into account gender considerations to support action on mitigation and adaptation and enhance low-emission and climate-resilient development,

Whereas UNEP, on behalf of a consortium of partner institutions located in both developed and developing countries, submitted a proposal to host the CTC and informed the Committee of Permanent Representatives to UNEP thereof,

Whereas UNEP is the leading organization within the United Nations system in the field of environment and has, in the field of climate change, the mandate, among others: to strengthen the ability of countries, in particular developing countries, to integrate climate change responses into their national development processes and specifically to reduce their vulnerability and build up their resilience to the impacts of climate change; to facilitate the transition to low-carbon societies; to facilitate access to climate change financing for clean technologies; to support both public and private financing mechanisms; to support national processes for implementing sustainable forest management plans; to improve the understanding of climate change science and its use in sound policymaking; and to improve the general understanding of climate change,

Whereas the COP, by decision 14/CP.18, selected UNEP as the organization to host the CTC,

Whereas the UNEP Governing Council, by decision “…”3, at its twenty-seventh regular session, authorized the Executive Director of UNEP to host the CTC in UNEP,

NOW THEREFORE the Parties to this MOU have agreed to the following:

I. Purpose

1. The purpose of this MOU is to stipulate the terms of the relationship between the COP and UNEP with respect to the hosting of the CTC in UNEP in accordance with decision 14/CP.18.

II. Role and responsibilities of the Conference of the Parties

2. The CTCN shall operate within its terms of reference and be accountable to, and under the guidance of, the COP through the Advisory Board in accordance with decisions 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17, 1/CP.18, 14/CP.18 and other relevant decisions of the COP.

3. The Advisory Board shall advise the CTCN on the implementation of its terms of reference and the guidance provided by the COP.

4. The COP shall consider the annual report on the activities of the CTCN prepared in accordance with decisions 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17 and other relevant decisions of the COP, and provide guidance thereon.

5. In taking decisions that would affect the hosting of the CTC in UNEP, the COP shall take into consideration any views and information provided by UNEP.

III. Role and responsibilities of the United Nations Environment Programme

6. UNEP agrees to host the CTC as a dedicated entity within UNEP in accordance with decision ”…”4 of the UNEP Governing Council at its twenty-seventh regular session authorizing the Executive Director to host the CTC in UNEP and the provisions of this MOU.

7. UNEP shall design the organizational structure, manage the CTC and provide the necessary administrative and infrastructural support for the effective functioning of the CTC, in accordance with relevant United Nations and UNEP regulations, rules and procedures and decisions of the UNEP Governing Council, and subject to the financing provided pursuant to section VII below.

8. UNEP shall select and appoint, pursuant to the United Nations Staff Regulations and Rules and in accordance with decision 2/CP.17, the Director of the CTC, who shall be a UNEP staff member and accountable to the Executive Director of UNEP.

9. UNEP shall select and appoint, pursuant to the United Nations Staff Regulations and Rules, a small core staff to support the CTC in an effective and efficient manner, to be managed by the Director of the CTC.

10. UNEP may make use of loans of personnel from the consortium of partner institutions to support the CTC, in accordance with relevant United Nations regulations, rules and procedures.

11. UNEP shall provide periodic updates on matters regarding its role as the host of the CTC and make this information available in the annual report of the CTCN provided to the COP through the subsidiary bodies, prepared pursuant to paragraph 19 below.

12. UNEP shall guide the consortium of partner institutions to effectively support the functioning and operations of the CTC and shall make appropriate arrangements governing their cooperation.

13. The Executive Director of UNEP shall be responsible for the execution of the functions of UNEP under this MOU.

IV. Role and functions of the Climate Technology Centre and Network

14. The CTCN shall operate in accordance with decisions 1/CP.16, 2/CP.17, 1/CP.18, 14/CP.18 and other relevant decisions of the COP.

V. Role and functions of the consortium of partner institutions

15. The consortium of partner institutions shall, following the signature of appropriate agreements governing their cooperation with UNEP, support the operations of the CTC.

VI. Role and functions of the Director and personnel of the Climate Technology Centre

16. The Director shall be accountable to the Executive Director of UNEP for the effectiveness and efficiency of the CTC in carrying out its functions in accordance with relevant United Nations and UNEP regulations, rules and procedures and decisions of the UNEP Governing Council.

17. The Director shall serve as the secretary to the Advisory Board and be responsible for facilitating and providing support to the work of the Board, including making arrangements for the meetings of the Board.

18. The Director shall prepare a budget for the CTCN in accordance with decision 2/CP.17 and in conformity with the relevant regulations, rules and procedures governing the programme budget of UNEP. The CTCN budget will be prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the COP. The part of the CTCN budget managed by UNEP will be included in the programme budget of UNEP as an extra-budgetary item to support the CTCN.

19. The Director shall prepare the annual report on the CTCN for submission to the COP through the subsidiary bodies. The annual report shall be approved by the Advisory Board in accordance with decision 2/CP.17, and shall include the financial status of, and information on the mobilization of other resources for, the CTCN.

20. The Director shall manage the financial resources of the CTCN in accordance with the United Nations Financial Regulations and Rules and the Financial Rules of UNEP, fiduciary, anti-fraud and anti-corruption policies and environmental and social safeguards.

21. The Director and personnel of the CTC shall liaise, as appropriate, with the secretariat of the UNFCCC and other relevant international bodies on issues relating to the activities and operations of the CTC.

VII. Financial arrangements of the Climate Technology Centre and Network

22. The costs associated with the CTC and the mobilization of the services of the Network will be funded from various sources, including the financial mechanism of the Convention, bilateral, multilateral and private-sector channels, philanthropic sources and financial and in-kind contributions from the host organization and participants in the Network.

23. UNEP shall provide financial and in-kind contributions to the CTC, in accordance with paragraph 139 of decision 2/CP.17 and taking into account the proposal of UNEP and the contribution of the consortium of partner institutions.

24. The CTC, in collaboration with UNEP and in consultation with the Advisory Board, shall help to mobilize funds to meet the costs associated with the CTCN.

VIII. Implementation of this Memorandum of Understanding

25. The Advisory Board and UNEP may agree on further arrangements for the implementation of this MOU, which do not in any way amend the existing provisions of this MOU, and report thereon to the COP.

26. Nothing in or relating to this MOU will be deemed a waiver, express or implied, of any of the privileges and immunities of the United Nations, including its subsidiary organs. IX. Dispute settlement

27. The COP, through the Advisory Board, and UNEP shall use their best efforts to amicably resolve any disputes, controversies or claims arising out of or relating to this MOU, including by use of mutually agreed dispute resolution methods.

X. Entire agreement

28. Any annex to this MOU that is concluded in the future will be considered an integral part of this MOU. References to this MOU will be construed as including any annexes, as varied or amended in accordance with the terms of this MOU. This MOU represents the complete understanding between the Parties.

XI. Interpretation

29. This MOU will be interpreted in accordance with relevant decisions of the COP and the UNEP Governing Council.

30. Any Party’s failure to request the implementation of a provision of this MOU will not constitute a waiver of that or any other provision of this MOU. XII. Term of this Memorandum of Understanding

31. The initial term of this MOU shall be five years, with two four-year renewal periods, if so decided by the COP and UNEP.

XIII. Notification and amendment

32. Each Party will promptly notify the other in writing of any anticipated or actual material changes that will affect the execution of this MOU.

33. The Parties may amend this MOU by mutual written agreement.

XIV. Entry into force

34. This MOU will come into force upon the last date of signature by the duly authorized representatives of the Parties.

XV. Termination

35. Subject to section XII above, either Party may terminate this MOU by giving one year’s prior written notice to the other Party. The termination shall come into effect one year from the date of the receipt of such a communication.

36. Following the termination of this MOU, UNEP shall take all necessary actions to conclude its operations relating to the CTC in an expeditious manner. Any termination of this MOU will be without prejudice to any other rights and obligations of the Parties accrued prior to the date of the termination under this MOU or any legal instrument executed pursuant to this MOU.

Annex II

Constitution of the Advisory Board of the Climate Technology Centre and Network

1. The Advisory Board of the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN), with the aim of achieving fair and balanced representation, shall constitute the following:

  • (a) 16 government representatives, comprising equal representation from Parties included in Annex I to the Convention (Annex I Parties) and Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (non-Annex I Parties);
  • (b) The Chair and the Vice-Chair of the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) in their official capacity as TEC representatives;
  • (c) One of the Co-Chairs, or a member designated by the Co-Chairs, of the Green Climate Fund Board in his/her official capacity as a Green Climate Fund representative;
  • (d) The Chair or the Vice-Chair of the Adaptation Committee, or a member designated by the Chair and the Vice-Chair, in his/her official capacity as an Adaptation Committee representative;
  • (e) One of the Co-Chairs, or a member designated by the Co-Chairs, of the Standing Committee in his/her official capacity as a Standing Committee representative;
  • (f) The Director of the CTCN in his/her official capacity as the CTCN representative;
  • (g) Three representatives, with one being selected by each of the following UNFCCC observer organization constituencies, taking into account balanced geographical representation: environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs), business and industry non-governmental organizations (BINGOs) and research and independent nongovernmental organizations (RINGOs), with relevant expertise in technology, finance or business, received by the host organization of the Climate Technology Centre (CTC), taking into account balanced geographical representation.

2. The Advisory Board will invite expert observers to attend meetings based on specific agenda needs, according to modalities and procedures developed by the Advisory Board at its first meeting.

3. The director of the CTCN shall be the secretary of the Advisory Board.

4. Government representatives shall be nominated by their respective groups or constituencies and elected by the Conference of the Parties (COP). Groups or constituencies are encouraged to nominate the government representatives to the Advisory Board, with a view to achieving an appropriate balance of expertise relevant to the development and transfer of technologies for adaptation and mitigation, taking into account the need to achieve gender balance in accordance with decisions 36/CP.7 and 23/CP.18.

5. Government representatives elected to the Advisory Board shall serve for a term of two years and shall be eligible to serve a maximum of two consecutive terms of office. The following rules shall apply:

  • (a) Half of the representatives shall be elected initially for a term of three years and half shall be elected for a term of two years;
  • (b) Thereafter, the COP shall elect half of the representatives every year for a term of two years;
  • (c) The representatives shall remain in office until their successors are elected.

6. If a government representative of the Advisory Board resigns or is otherwise unable to complete the assigned term of office or to perform the functions of that office, the Advisory Board may decide, bearing in mind the proximity of the next session of the COP, to appoint another representative from the same constituency to replace said representative for the remainder of that representative’s mandate, in which case the appointment shall count as one term.

7. The representatives of the Advisory Board referred to in paragraph 1(b) above shall serve in accordance with their term of office.

8. The representatives of the Advisory Board referred to in paragraph 1(c), (d) and (e) above shall serve in accordance with their term of office.

9. The representatives of the Advisory Board referred to in paragraph 1(g) above shall be eligible to serve for a maximum term of office of one year.

10. Decisions of the Advisory Board will be taken by consensus by only the Advisory Board representatives referred to in paragraph 1(a) and (b) above. These representatives will specify in the modalities and procedures of the Advisory Board how to adopt decisions in the event that all efforts at reaching consensus have been exhausted.

11. The Advisory Board shall elect annually a Chair and a Vice-Chair from among the representatives referred to in paragraph 1(a) above for a term of one year each, with one being from an Annex I Party and the other being from a non-Annex I Party. The positions of Chair and Vice-Chair shall alternate annually between a representative from an Annex I Party and a representative from a non-Annex I Party.

12. If the Chair is temporarily unable to fulfil the obligations of the office, the ViceChair shall serve as Chair. In the absence of the Chair and the Vice-Chair at a particular meeting, any other representatives identified in paragraph 1(a) above designated by the Advisory Board shall temporarily serve as the Chair of that meeting.

13. If the Chair or the Vice-chair is unable to complete the term of office, the Advisory Board shall elect a replacement to complete the term of office, taking into account paragraph 6 above.

14. The meetings of the Advisory Board shall be open to attendance, as observers, by Parties, the secretariat and observer organizations, except where otherwise decided by the Advisory Board.

15. The CTC shall support and facilitate the work of the Advisory Board of the CTCN.

16. The constitution of the Advisory Board shall be reviewed by the COP in 2020.

Gender reference

Acknowledges the need for further work to enhance the understanding of how loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change affects those segments of the population that are already vulnerable owing to geography, gender, age, indigenous or minority status, or disability, and how the implementation of approaches to address loss and damage can benefit those segments of the population. In addition, it acknowledges the need for strengthening and supporting the collection and management of relevant data, including gender-disaggregated data.

Elaborated language

The Conference of the Parties,

Recalling the relevant provisions of the Convention,

Also recalling decisions 1/CP.16 and 7/CP.17 and the relevant conclusions of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its thirty-fourth and thirty-sixth sessions,

Recognizing the need to strengthen international cooperation and expertise in order to understand and reduce loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including impacts related to extreme weather events and slow onset events,

Highlighting the important and fundamental role of the Convention in addressing loss and damage associated with climate change impacts, especially in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, including by promoting leadership, collaboration and cooperation, at the national, regional and international levels and for a broad range of sectors and ecosystems, in order to enable coherent and synergistic approaches to address such loss and damage,

Noting the relevant work undertaken by other bodies, work programmes and workplans, and processes under the Convention,

Taking note of the relevant knowledge and ongoing work outside of the Convention, including the Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, the Hyogo Framework for Action and the Global Framework for Climate Services of the World Meteorological Organization,

Reaffirming the need for Parties to take precautionary measures, in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Convention, to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate change and mitigate its adverse effects, and underlining that the lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as reason for postponing action,

Appreciating the progress made in the implementation, and the importance of the continuation, of the work programme to address the loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change,

Acknowledging ongoing initiatives relevant to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change at the national, international and regional levels and that there is a need to scale up these efforts, including by enhancing support and coordination in the broader context of climate-resilient sustainable development, 1.

Acknowledges the need to enhance support, including finance, technology and capacity-building, for relevant actions;

2. Notes that a range of approaches, methods and tools is available to assess the risk of and to respond to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, and that their selection depends upon regional, national and local capacity, context and circumstances, and involves the engagement of all relevant stakeholders;

3. Also notes that there are important linkages between extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the importance of building comprehensive climate risk management approaches;

4. Agrees that comprehensive, inclusive and strategic responses are needed to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;

5. Also agrees that the role of the Convention in promoting the implementation of approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change includes, inter alia, the following:

  • (a) Enhancing knowledge and understanding of comprehensive risk management approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including slow onset impacts;
  • (b) Strengthening dialogue, coordination, coherence and synergies among relevant stakeholders;
  • (c) Enhancing action and support, including finance, technology and capacitybuilding, to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;

6. Invites all Parties, taking into account common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and specific national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, to enhance action on addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, taking into account national development processes, by undertaking, inter alia, the following:

  • (a) Assessing the risk of loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including slow onset impacts;
  • (b) Identifying options and designing and implementing country-driven risk management strategies and approaches, including risk reduction, and risk transfer and risksharing mechanisms;
  • (c) The systematic observation of, and data collection on, the impacts of climate change, in particular slow onset impacts, and accounting for losses, as appropriate;
  • (d) Implementing comprehensive climate risk management approaches, including scaling up and replicating good practices and pilot initiatives;
  • (e) Promoting an enabling environment that would encourage investment and the involvement of relevant stakeholders in climate risk management;
  • (f) Involving vulnerable communities and populations, and civil society, the private sector and other relevant stakeholders, in the assessment of and response to loss and damage;
  • (g) Enhancing access to, sharing and the use of data, at the regional, national and subnational levels, such as hydrometeorological data and metadata, on a voluntary basis, to facilitate the assessment and management of climate-related risk;

7. Acknowledges the further work to advance the understanding of and expertise on loss and damage, which includes, inter alia, the following:

  • (a) Enhancing the understanding of:
  • (i) The risk of slow onset events, and approaches to address them;
  • (ii) Non-economic losses and damages;
  • (iii) How loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change affects those segments of the population that are already vulnerable owing to geography, gender, age, indigenous or minority status, or disability, and how the implementation of approaches to address loss and damage can benefit those segments of the population;
  • (iv) How to identify and develop appropriate approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including to address slow onset events and extreme weather events, including through risk reduction, risk sharing and risk transfer tools, and approaches to rehabilitate from loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;
  • (v) How approaches to address loss and damage associated with the impacts of climate change may be integrated into climate-resilient development processes;
  • (vi) How impacts of climate change are affecting patterns of migration, displacement and human mobility;
  • (b) Strengthening and supporting the collection and management of relevant data, including gender-disaggregated data, for assessing the risk of loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;
  • (c) Enhancing coordination, synergies and linkages among various organizations, institutions and frameworks, to enable the development and support of approaches to address loss and damage, including slow onset events and comprehensive climate risk management strategies, including risk transfer tools;
  • (d) Strengthening and promoting regional collaboration, centres and networks on strategies and approaches, including to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including slow onset events, including through risk reduction, risk sharing and risk transfer initiatives;
  • (e) Enhanced capacity-building at the national and regional levels to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;
  • (f) Strengthening institutional arrangements at the national, regional and international levels to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;

8. Requests developed country Parties to provide developing country Parties with finance, technology and capacity-building, in accordance with decision 1/CP.16 and other relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties;

9. Decides to establish, at its nineteenth session, institutional arrangements, such as an international mechanism, including functions and modalities, elaborated in accordance with the role of the Convention as defined in paragraph 5 above, to address loss and damage associated with the impacts of climate change in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change;

10. Requests the secretariat to carry out the following interim activities under the work programme on loss and damage, prior to the thirty-ninth session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation:

  • (a) An expert meeting to consider future needs, including capacity needs associated with possible approaches to address slow onset events, and to prepare a report for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its thirty-ninth session;
  • (b) Preparation of a technical paper on non-economic losses;
  • (c) Preparation of a technical paper on gaps in existing institutional arrangements within and outside of the Convention to address loss and damage, including those related to slow onset events;

11. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to consider the technical paper referred to in paragraph 10(c) above in developing the arrangements referred to in paragraph 9 above;

12. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to elaborate, at its thirtyeighth session, activities under the work programme on loss and damage, to further the understanding of and expertise on loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, taking into account the provisions contained in paragraph 7 above;

13. Takes note of the estimated budgetary implications of the activities to be undertaken by the secretariat pursuant to the provisions contained in this decision;

14. Further requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources; in the absence of adequate additional funding, as indicated in the budgetary estimates referred to above, the secretariat may not be in a position to undertake the requested activities.

Gender reference

Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting and gender-responsive.

Elaborated language

Annex

Paris Agreement

Article 11

1. Capacity-building under this Agreement should enhance the capacity and ability of developing country Parties, in particular countries with the least capacity, such as the least developed countries, and those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, such as small island developing States, to take effective climate change action, including, inter alia, to implement adaptation and mitigation actions, and should facilitate technology development, dissemination and deployment, access to climate finance, relevant aspects of education, training and public awareness, and the transparent, timely and accurate communication of information.

2. Capacity-building should be country-driven, based on and responsive to national needs, and foster country ownership of Parties, in particular, for developing country Parties, including at the national, subnational and local levels. Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting and gender-responsive.

3. All Parties should cooperate to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement. Developed country Parties should enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing country Parties.

4. All Parties enhancing the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement, including through regional, bilateral and multilateral approaches, shall regularly communicate on these actions or measures on capacity-building. Developing country Parties should regularly communicate progress made on implementing capacity-building plans, policies, actions or measures to implement this Agreement.

5. Capacity-building activities shall be enhanced through appropriate institutional arrangements to support the implementation of this Agreement, including the appropriate institutional arrangements established under the Convention that serve this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, consider and adopt a decision on the initial institutional arrangements for capacity-building.

 

    Gender reference

    Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity.

    Elaborated language

    Annex

    Paris Agreement

    The Parties to this Agreement,

    Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”,

    Pursuant to the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action established by decision 1/CP.17 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention at its seventeenth session,

    In pursuit of the objective of the Convention, and being guided by its principles, including the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances,

    Recognizing the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge,

    Also recognizing the specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, as provided for in the Convention,

    Taking full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed countries with regard to funding and transfer of technology,

    Recognizing that Parties may be affected not only by climate change, but also by the impacts of the measures taken in response to it,

    Emphasizing the intrinsic relationship that climate change actions, responses and impacts have with equitable access to sustainable development and eradication of poverty,

    Recognizing the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change,

    Taking into account the imperatives of a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities,

    Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity,

    Recognizing the importance of the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of the greenhouse gases referred to in the Convention,

    Noting the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems, including oceans, and the protection of biodiversity, recognized by some cultures as Mother Earth, and noting the importance for some of the concept of “climate justice”, when taking action to address climate change,

    Affirming the importance of education, training, public awareness, public participation, public access to information and cooperation at all levels on the matters addressed in this Agreement,

    Recognizing the importance of the engagements of all levels of government and various actors, in accordance with respective national legislations of Parties, in addressing climate change,

    Also recognizing that sustainable lifestyles and sustainable patterns of consumption and production, with developed country Parties taking the lead, play an important role in addressing climate change,

    Have agreed as follows:

    Article 1

          For the purpose of this Agreement, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention shall apply. In addition:

    1. “Convention” means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992;
    2. “Conference  of  the  Parties”  means  the  Conference  of  the  Parties  to  the Convention;
    3. “Party” means a Party to this Agreement.

    Article 2

    1. This Agreement, in enhancing the implementation of the Convention, including its objective, aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, including by

     

    1. Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;
    2. Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production; and
    3. Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.

          2.This Agreement will be implemented to reflect equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and          respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

    Article 3

    As nationally determined contributions to the global response to climate change, all Parties are to undertake and communicate ambitious efforts as defined in Articles 4, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 13 with the view to achieving the purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2. The efforts of all Parties will represent a progression over time, while recognizing the need to support developing country Parties for the effective implementation of this Agreement.

    Article 4

         1. In order to achieve the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2, Parties aim to reach global peaking of                         greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking will take longer for developing country                     Parties, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with best available science, so as to achieve a                 balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half           of this century, on the basis of equity, and in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty.

    1. Each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions that it intends to achieve. Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of such contributions.
    2. Each Party’s successive nationally determined contribution will represent a progression beyond the Party’s then current nationally determined contribution and reflect its highest possible ambition, reflecting its common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
    3. Developed country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their mitigation efforts, and are encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of different national circumstances.
    4. Support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, in accordance with Articles 9, 10 and 11, recognizing that enhanced support for developing country Parties will allow for higher ambition in their actions.
    5. The least developed countries and small island developing States may prepare and communicate strategies, plans and actions for low greenhouse gas emissions development reflecting their special circumstances.
    6. Mitigation co-benefits resulting from Parties’ adaptation actions and/or economic diversification plans can contribute to mitigation outcomes under this Article.
    7. In communicating their nationally determined contributions, all Parties shall provide the information necessary for clarity, transparency and understanding in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    8. Each Party shall communicate a nationally determined contribution every five years in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and be informed by the outcomes of the global stocktake referred to in Article 14.
    9. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall consider common time frames for nationally determined contributions at its first session.
    10. A Party may at any time adjust its existing nationally determined contribution with a view to enhancing its level of ambition, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    11. Nationally determined contributions communicated by Parties shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
    12. Parties shall account for their nationally determined contributions. In accounting for anthropogenic emissions and removals corresponding to their nationally determined contributions, Parties shall promote environmental integrity, transparency, accuracy, completeness, comparability and consistency, and ensure the avoidance of double counting, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    13. In the context of their nationally determined contributions, when recognizing and implementing mitigation actions with respect to anthropogenic emissions and removals, Parties should take into account, as appropriate, existing methods and guidance under the Convention, in the light of the provisions of paragraph 13 of this Article.
    14. Parties shall take into consideration in the implementation of this Agreement the concerns of Parties with economies most affected by the impacts of response measures, particularly developing country Parties.
    15. Parties, including regional economic integration organizations and their member States, that have reached an agreement to act jointly under paragraph 2 of this Article shall notify the secretariat of the terms of that agreement, including the emission level allocated to each Party within the relevant time period, when they communicate their nationally determined contributions. The secretariat shall in turn inform the Parties and signatories to the Convention of the terms of that agreement.
    16. Each party to such an agreement shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement referred to in paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
    17. If Parties acting jointly do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic integration organization which is itself a Party to this Agreement, each member State of that regional economic integration organization individually, and together with the regional economic integration organization, shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement communicated under paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
    18. All Parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies, mindful of Article 2 taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

    Article 5

    1. Parties should take action to conserve and enhance, as appropriate, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the Convention, including forests.
    2. Parties are encouraged to take action to implement and support, including through results-based payments, the existing framework as set out in related guidance and decisions already agreed under the Convention for: policy approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries; and alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, while reaffirming the importance of incentivizing, as appropriate, non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches.

    Article 6

    1. Parties recognize that some Parties choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions to allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions and to promote sustainable development and environmental integrity.
    2. Parties shall, where engaging on a voluntary basis in cooperative approaches that involve the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards nationally determined contributions, promote sustainable development and ensure environmental integrity and transparency, including in governance, and shall apply robust accounting to ensure, inter alia, the avoidance of double counting, consistent with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    1. The use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes to achieve nationally determined contributions under this Agreement shall be voluntary and authorized by participating Parties.
    2. A mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development is hereby established under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement for use by Parties on a voluntary basis. It shall be supervised by a body designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, and shall aim:
      1. To promote the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development;
      2. To incentivize and facilitate participation in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by public and private entities authorized by a Party;
      3. To contribute to the reduction of emission levels in the host Party, which will benefit from mitigation activities resulting in emission reductions that can also be used by another Party to fulfil its nationally determined contribution; and
      4. To deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions.
    3. Emission reductions resulting from the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall not be used to demonstrate achievement of the host Party’s nationally determined contribution if used by another Party to demonstrate achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
    4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall ensure that a share of the proceeds from activities under the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article is used to cover administrative expenses as well as to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.
    5. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall adopt rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article at its first session.
    6. Parties recognize the importance of integrated, holistic and balanced non-market approaches being available to Parties to assist in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in a coordinated and effective manner, including through, inter alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, as appropriate. These approaches shall aim to:
      1. Promote mitigation and adaptation ambition;
      2. Enhance public and private sector participation in the implementation of nationally determined contributions; and
      3. Enable opportunities for coordination across instruments and relevant institutional arrangements.
    7. A framework for non-market approaches to sustainable development is hereby defined to promote the non-market approaches referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article.

    Article 7

         1. Parties hereby establish the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and                reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an                    adequate adaptation response in the context of the temperature goal referred to in Article 2.

    1. Parties recognize that adaptation is a global challenge faced by all with local, subnational, national, regional and international dimensions, and that it is a key component of and makes a contribution to the long-term global response to climate change to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems, taking into account the urgent and immediate needs of those developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
    2. The adaptation efforts of developing country Parties shall be recognized, in accordance with the modalities to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session.
    3. Parties recognize that the current need for adaptation is significant and that greater levels of mitigation can reduce the need for additional adaptation efforts, and that greater adaptation needs can involve greater adaptation costs.
    4. Parties acknowledge that adaptation action should follow a country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate.
    5. Parties recognize the importance of support for and international cooperation on adaptation efforts and the importance of taking into account the needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
    6. Parties should strengthen their cooperation on enhancing action on adaptation, taking into account the Cancun Adaptation Framework, including with regard to:
      1. Sharing information, good practices, experiences and lessons learned, including, as appropriate, as these relate to science, planning, policies and implementation in relation to adaptation actions;
      2. Strengthening institutional arrangements, including those under the Convention that serve this Agreement, to support the synthesis of relevant information and knowledge, and the provision of technical support and guidance to Parties;
      3. Strengthening scientific knowledge on climate, including research, systematic observation of the climate system and early warning systems, in a manner that informs climate services and supports decision-making;
      4. Assisting developing country Parties in identifying effective adaptation practices, adaptation needs, priorities, support provided and received for adaptation actions and efforts, and challenges and gaps, in a manner consistent with encouraging good practices; and
      5. Improving the effectiveness and durability of adaptation actions.
    7. United Nations specialized organizations and agencies are encouraged to support the efforts of Parties to implement the actions referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article, taking into account the provisions of paragraph 5 of this Article.
    8. Each Party shall, as appropriate, engage in adaptation planning processes and the implementation of actions, including the development or enhancement of relevant plans, policies and/or contributions, which may include:
    1. The implementation of adaptation actions, undertakings and/or efforts;
    2. The process to formulate and implement national adaptation plans;
    3. The assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability, with a view to formulating nationally determined prioritized actions, taking into account vulnerable people, places and ecosystems;
    4. Monitoring and evaluating and learning from adaptation plans, policies, programmes and actions; and
    5. Building the resilience of socioeconomic and ecological systems, including through economic diversification and sustainable management of natural resources.
    1. Each Party should, as appropriate, submit and update periodically an adaptation communication, which may include its priorities, implementation and support needs, plans and actions, without creating any additional burden for developing country Parties.
    2. The adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be, as appropriate, submitted and updated periodically, as a component of or in conjunction with other communications or documents, including a national adaptation plan, a nationally determined contribution as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 2, and/or a national communication.
    3. The adaptation communications referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
    4. Continuous and enhanced international support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of paragraphs 7, 9, 10 and 11 of this Article, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 9, 10 and 11.
    5. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall, inter alia:
      1. Recognize adaptation efforts of developing country Parties;
      2. Enhance the implementation of adaptation action taking into account the adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article;
      3. Review the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation and support provided for adaptation; and
      4. Review the overall progress made in achieving the global goal on adaptation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

    Article 8

    1. Parties recognize the importance of averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the role of sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage.
    2. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts shall be subject to the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and may be enhanced and strengthened, as determined by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    3. Parties should enhance understanding, action and support, including through the Warsaw International Mechanism, as appropriate, on a cooperative and facilitative basis with respect to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change.
    4. Accordingly, areas of cooperation and facilitation to enhance understanding, action and support may include:
      1. Early warning systems;
      2. Emergency preparedness;
      3. Slow onset events;
      4. Events that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage;
      5. Comprehensive risk assessment and management;
      6. Risk insurance facilities, climate risk pooling and other insurance solutions;
      7. Non-economic losses; and
      8. Resilience of communities, livelihoods and ecosystems.
    5. The Warsaw International Mechanism shall collaborate with existing bodies and expert groups under the Agreement, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Agreement.

    Article 9

    1. Developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention.
    2. Other Parties are encouraged to provide or continue to provide such support voluntarily.
    3. As part of a global effort, developed country Parties should continue to take the lead in mobilizing climate finance from a wide variety of sources, instruments and channels, noting the significant role of public funds, through a variety of actions, including supporting country-driven strategies, and taking into account the needs and priorities of developing country Parties. Such mobilization of climate finance should represent a progression beyond previous efforts.
    4. The provision of scaled-up financial resources should aim to achieve a balance between adaptation and mitigation, taking into account country-driven strategies, and the priorities and needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and have significant capacity constraints, such as the least developed countries and small island developing States, considering the need for public and grant-based resources for adaptation.
    5. Developed country Parties shall biennially communicate indicative quantitative and qualitative information related to paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, as applicable, including, as available, projected levels of public financial resources to be provided to developing country Parties. Other Parties providing resources are encouraged to communicate biennially such information on a voluntary basis.
    6. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account the relevant information provided by developed country Parties and/or Agreement bodies on efforts related to climate finance.
    7. Developed country Parties shall provide transparent and consistent information on support for developing country Parties provided and mobilized through public interventions biennially in accordance with the modalities, procedures and guidelines to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, at its first session, as stipulated in Article 13, paragraph 13. Other Parties are encouraged to do so.
    8. The Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including its operating entities, shall serve as the financial mechanism of this Agreement.
    9. The institutions serving this Agreement, including the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, shall aim to ensure efficient access to financial resources through simplified approval procedures and enhanced readiness support for developing country Parties, in particular for the least developed countries and small island developing States, in the context of their national climate strategies and plans.

    Article 10

    1. Parties share a long-term vision on the importance of fully realizing technology development and transfer in order to improve resilience to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
    2. Parties, noting the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions under this Agreement and recognizing existing technology deployment and dissemination efforts, shall strengthen cooperative action on technology development and transfer.
    3. The Technology Mechanism established under the Convention shall serve this Agreement.
    4. A technology framework is hereby established to provide overarching guidance to the work of the Technology Mechanism in promoting and facilitating enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to support the implementation of this Agreement, in pursuit of the long-term vision referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.
    5. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort shall be, as appropriate, supported, including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to developing country Parties.
    6. Support, including financial support, shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, including for strengthening cooperative action on technology development and transfer at different stages of the technology cycle, with a view to achieving a balance between support for mitigation and adaptation. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account available information on efforts related to support on technology development and transfer for developing country Parties.

    Article 11

    1. Capacity-building under this Agreement should enhance the capacity and ability of developing country Parties, in particular countries with the least capacity, such as the least developed countries, and those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, such as small island developing States, to take effective climate change action, including, inter alia, to implement adaptation and mitigation actions, and should facilitate technology development, dissemination and deployment, access to climate finance, relevant aspects of education, training and public awareness, and the transparent, timely and accurate communication of information.
    2. Capacity-building should be country-driven, based on and responsive to national needs, and foster country ownership of Parties, in particular, for developing country Parties, including at the national, subnational and local levels. Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting and gender-responsive.
    3. All Parties should cooperate to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement. Developed country Parties should enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing country Parties.
    4. All Parties enhancing the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement, including through regional, bilateral and multilateral approaches, shall regularly communicate on these actions or measures on capacity-building. Developing country Parties should regularly communicate progress made on implementing capacity-building plans, policies, actions or measures to implement this Agreement.
    5. Capacity-building activities shall be enhanced through appropriate institutional arrangements to support the implementation of this Agreement, including the appropriate institutional arrangements established under the Convention that serve this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, consider and adopt a decision on the initial institutional arrangements for capacity-building.

    Article 12

    Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement.

    Article 13

    1. In order to build mutual trust and confidence and to promote effective implementation, an enhanced transparency framework for action and support, with built-in flexibility which takes into account Parties’ different capacities and builds upon collective experience is hereby established.
    2. The transparency framework shall provide flexibility in the implementation of the provisions of this Article to those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities. The modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article shall reflect such flexibility.
    3. The transparency framework shall build on and enhance the transparency arrangements under the Convention, recognizing the special circumstances of the least developed countries and small island developing States, and be implemented in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner, respectful of national sovereignty, and avoid placing undue burden on Parties.
    4. The transparency arrangements under the Convention, including national communications, biennial reports and biennial update reports, international assessment and review and international consultation and analysis, shall form part of the experience drawn upon for the development of the modalities, procedures and guidelines under paragraph 13 of this Article.
    5. The purpose of the framework for transparency of action is to provide a clear understanding of climate change action in the light of the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2, including clarity and tracking of progress towards achieving Parties’ individual nationally determined contributions under Article 4, and Parties’ adaptation actions under Article 7, including good practices, priorities, needs and gaps, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
    6. The purpose of the framework for transparency of support is to provide clarity on support provided and received by relevant individual Parties in the context of climate change actions under Articles 4, 7, 9, 10 and 11, and, to the extent possible, to provide a full overview of aggregate financial support provided, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
    7. Each Party shall regularly provide the following information:
      1. A national inventory report of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases, prepared using good practice methodologies accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement; and
      2. Information necessary to track progress made in implementing and achieving its nationally determined contribution under Article 4.
    8. Each Party should also provide information related to climate change impacts and adaptation under Article 7, as appropriate.
    9. Developed country Parties shall, and other Parties that provide support should, provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support provided to developing country Parties under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
    10. Developing country Parties should provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support needed and received under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
    11. Information submitted by each Party under paragraphs 7 and 9 of this Article shall undergo a technical expert review, in accordance with decision 1/CP.21. For those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities, the review process shall include assistance in identifying capacity-building needs. In addition, each Party shall participate in a facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress with respect to efforts under Article 9, and its respective implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
    12. The technical expert review under this paragraph shall consist of a consideration of the Party’s support provided, as relevant, and its implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution. The review shall also identify areas of improvement for the Party, and include a review of the consistency of the information with the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article, taking into account the flexibility accorded to the Party under paragraph 2 of this Article. The review shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of developing country Parties.
    13. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, building on experience from the arrangements related to transparency under the Convention, and elaborating on the provisions in this Article, adopt common modalities, procedures and guidelines, as appropriate, for the transparency of action and support.
    14. Support shall be provided to developing countries for the implementation of this Article.
    15. Support shall also be provided for the building of transparency-related capacity of developing country Parties on a continuous basis.

    Article 14

    1. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall periodically take stock of the implementation of this Agreement to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement and its long-term goals (referred to as the “global stocktake”). It shall do so in a comprehensive and facilitative manner, considering mitigation, adaptation and the means of implementation and support, and in the light of equity and the best available science.
    2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall undertake its first global stocktake in 2023 and every five years thereafter unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    3. The outcome of the global stocktake shall inform Parties in updating and enhancing, in a nationally determined manner, their actions and support in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Agreement, as well as in enhancing international cooperation for climate action.

    Article 15

    1. A mechanism to facilitate implementation of and promote compliance with the provisions of this Agreement is hereby established.
    2. The mechanism referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall consist of a committee that shall be expert-based and facilitative in nature and function in a manner that is transparent, non-adversarial and non-punitive. The committee shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.
    3. The committee shall operate under the modalities and procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session and report annually to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

    Article 16

    1. The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
    3. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, any member of the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.
    4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall keep under regular review the implementation of this Agreement and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote its effective implementation. It shall perform the functions assigned to it by this Agreement and shall:
      1. Establish such subsidiary bodies as deemed necessary for the implementation of this Agreement; and
      2. Exercise such other functions as may be required for the implementation of this Agreement.
    5. The rules of procedure of the Conference of the Parties and the financial procedures applied under the Convention shall be applied mutatis mutandis under this Agreement, except as may be otherwise decided by consensus by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    6. The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be convened by the secretariat in conjunction with the first session of the Conference of the Parties that is scheduled after the date of entry into force of this Agreement. Subsequent ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    7. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
    8. The United Nations and its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by this Agreement and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as an observer, may be so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure referred to in paragraph 5 of this Article.

    Article 17

    1. The secretariat established by Article 8 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat of this Agreement.
    2. Article 8, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the functions of the secretariat, and Article 8, paragraph 3, of the Convention, on the arrangements made for the functioning of the secretariat, shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. The secretariat shall, in addition, exercise the functions assigned to it under this Agreement and by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

    Article 18

    1. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention shall serve, respectively, as the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement. The provisions of the Convention relating to the functioning of these two bodies shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the Convention.
    2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the subsidiary bodies. When the subsidiary 

    bodies serve as the subsidiary bodies of this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.

    3. When the subsidiary bodies established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention exercise their functions with regard to matters concerning this Agreement, any member of the bureaux of those subsidiary bodies representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.

    Article 19

    1. Subsidiary bodies or other institutional arrangements established by or under the Convention, other than those referred to in this Agreement, shall serve this Agreement upon a decision of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall specify the functions to be exercised by such subsidiary bodies or arrangements.
    2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement may provide further guidance to such subsidiary bodies and institutional arrangements.

    Article 20

    1. This Agreement shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the Convention. It shall be open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017. Thereafter, this Agreement shall be open for accession from the day following the date on which it is closed for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
    2. Any regional economic integration organization that becomes a Party to this Agreement without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under this Agreement. In the case of regional economic integration organizations with one or more member States that are Parties to this Agreement, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under this Agreement. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under this Agreement concurrently.
    3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by this Agreement. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.

    Article 21

    1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 per cent of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
    2. Solely for the limited purpose of paragraph 1 of this Article, “total global greenhouse gas emissions” means the most up-to-date amount communicated on or before the date of adoption of this Agreement by the Parties to the Convention.
    1. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Agreement or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 of this Article for entry into force have been fulfilled, this Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
    2. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by its member States.

    Article 22

    The provisions of Article 15 of the Convention on the adoption of amendments to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

    Article 23

    1. The provisions of Article 16 of the Convention on the adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
    2. Annexes to this Agreement shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise expressly provided for, a reference to this Agreement constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall be restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific, technical, procedural or administrative character.

    Article 24

    The provisions of Article 14 of the Convention on settlement of disputes shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

    Article 25

    1. Each Party shall have one vote, except as provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article.
    2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Agreement. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.

    Article 26

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Agreement.

    Article 27

    No reservations may be made to this Agreement.

    Article 28

    1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Agreement has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from this Agreement by giving written notification to the Depositary.
    2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.
    3. Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from this Agreement.

                                                        Article 29

    The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations.

    DONE at Paris this twelfth day of December two thousand and fifteen.

    IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Agreement.

     

    Gender reference

    Parties acknowledge that adaptation action should follow a country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate.,

    Elaborated language

    Annex

    Paris Agreement

    The Parties to this Agreement,

    Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”,

    Pursuant to the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action established by decision 1/CP.17 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention at its seventeenth session,

    In pursuit of the objective of the Convention, and being guided by its principles, including the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances,

    Recognizing the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge,

    Also recognizing the specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, as provided for in the Convention,

    Taking full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed countries with regard to funding and transfer of technology,

    Recognizing that Parties may be affected not only by climate change, but also by the impacts of the measures taken in response to it,

    Emphasizing the intrinsic relationship that climate change actions, responses and impacts have with equitable access to sustainable development and eradication of poverty,

    Recognizing the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change,

    Taking into account the imperatives of a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities,

    Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity,

    Recognizing the importance of the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of the greenhouse gases referred to in the Convention,

    Noting the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems, including oceans, and the protection of biodiversity, recognized by some cultures as Mother Earth, and noting the importance for some of the concept of “climate justice”, when taking action to address climate change,

    Affirming the importance of education, training, public awareness, public participation, public access to information and cooperation at all levels on the matters addressed in this Agreement,

    Recognizing the importance of the engagements of all levels of government and various actors, in accordance with respective national legislations of Parties, in addressing climate change,

    Also recognizing that sustainable lifestyles and sustainable patterns of consumption and production, with developed country Parties taking the lead, play an important role in addressing climate change,

    Have agreed as follows:

    Article 1

          For the purpose of this Agreement, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention shall apply. In addition:

    1. “Convention” means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992;
    2. “Conference  of  the  Parties”  means  the  Conference  of  the  Parties  to  the Convention;
    3. “Party” means a Party to this Agreement.

    Article 2

    1. This Agreement, in enhancing the implementation of the Convention, including its objective, aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, including by

     

    1. Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;
    2. Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production; and
    3. Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.

          2.This Agreement will be implemented to reflect equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and          respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

    Article 3

    As nationally determined contributions to the global response to climate change, all Parties are to undertake and communicate ambitious efforts as defined in Articles 4, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 13 with the view to achieving the purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2. The efforts of all Parties will represent a progression over time, while recognizing the need to support developing country Parties for the effective implementation of this Agreement.

    Article 4

         1. In order to achieve the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2, Parties aim to reach global peaking of                         greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking will take longer for developing country                     Parties, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with best available science, so as to achieve a                 balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half           of this century, on the basis of equity, and in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty.

    1. Each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions that it intends to achieve. Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of such contributions.
    2. Each Party’s successive nationally determined contribution will represent a progression beyond the Party’s then current nationally determined contribution and reflect its highest possible ambition, reflecting its common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
    3. Developed country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their mitigation efforts, and are encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of different national circumstances.
    4. Support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, in accordance with Articles 9, 10 and 11, recognizing that enhanced support for developing country Parties will allow for higher ambition in their actions.
    5. The least developed countries and small island developing States may prepare and communicate strategies, plans and actions for low greenhouse gas emissions development reflecting their special circumstances.
    6. Mitigation co-benefits resulting from Parties’ adaptation actions and/or economic diversification plans can contribute to mitigation outcomes under this Article.
    7. In communicating their nationally determined contributions, all Parties shall provide the information necessary for clarity, transparency and understanding in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    8. Each Party shall communicate a nationally determined contribution every five years in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and be informed by the outcomes of the global stocktake referred to in Article 14.
    9. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall consider common time frames for nationally determined contributions at its first session.
    10. A Party may at any time adjust its existing nationally determined contribution with a view to enhancing its level of ambition, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    11. Nationally determined contributions communicated by Parties shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
    12. Parties shall account for their nationally determined contributions. In accounting for anthropogenic emissions and removals corresponding to their nationally determined contributions, Parties shall promote environmental integrity, transparency, accuracy, completeness, comparability and consistency, and ensure the avoidance of double counting, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    13. In the context of their nationally determined contributions, when recognizing and implementing mitigation actions with respect to anthropogenic emissions and removals, Parties should take into account, as appropriate, existing methods and guidance under the Convention, in the light of the provisions of paragraph 13 of this Article.
    14. Parties shall take into consideration in the implementation of this Agreement the concerns of Parties with economies most affected by the impacts of response measures, particularly developing country Parties.
    15. Parties, including regional economic integration organizations and their member States, that have reached an agreement to act jointly under paragraph 2 of this Article shall notify the secretariat of the terms of that agreement, including the emission level allocated to each Party within the relevant time period, when they communicate their nationally determined contributions. The secretariat shall in turn inform the Parties and signatories to the Convention of the terms of that agreement.
    16. Each party to such an agreement shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement referred to in paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
    17. If Parties acting jointly do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic integration organization which is itself a Party to this Agreement, each member State of that regional economic integration organization individually, and together with the regional economic integration organization, shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement communicated under paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
    18. All Parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies, mindful of Article 2 taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.

    Article 5

    1. Parties should take action to conserve and enhance, as appropriate, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the Convention, including forests.
    2. Parties are encouraged to take action to implement and support, including through results-based payments, the existing framework as set out in related guidance and decisions already agreed under the Convention for: policy approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries; and alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, while reaffirming the importance of incentivizing, as appropriate, non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches.

    Article 6

    1. Parties recognize that some Parties choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions to allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions and to promote sustainable development and environmental integrity.
    2. Parties shall, where engaging on a voluntary basis in cooperative approaches that involve the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards nationally determined contributions, promote sustainable development and ensure environmental integrity and transparency, including in governance, and shall apply robust accounting to ensure, inter alia, the avoidance of double counting, consistent with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    1. The use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes to achieve nationally determined contributions under this Agreement shall be voluntary and authorized by participating Parties.
    2. A mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development is hereby established under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement for use by Parties on a voluntary basis. It shall be supervised by a body designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, and shall aim:
      1. To promote the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development;
      2. To incentivize and facilitate participation in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by public and private entities authorized by a Party;
      3. To contribute to the reduction of emission levels in the host Party, which will benefit from mitigation activities resulting in emission reductions that can also be used by another Party to fulfil its nationally determined contribution; and
      4. To deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions.
    3. Emission reductions resulting from the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall not be used to demonstrate achievement of the host Party’s nationally determined contribution if used by another Party to demonstrate achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
    4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall ensure that a share of the proceeds from activities under the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article is used to cover administrative expenses as well as to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.
    5. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall adopt rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article at its first session.
    6. Parties recognize the importance of integrated, holistic and balanced non-market approaches being available to Parties to assist in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in a coordinated and effective manner, including through, inter alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, as appropriate. These approaches shall aim to:
      1. Promote mitigation and adaptation ambition;
      2. Enhance public and private sector participation in the implementation of nationally determined contributions; and
      3. Enable opportunities for coordination across instruments and relevant institutional arrangements.
    7. A framework for non-market approaches to sustainable development is hereby defined to promote the non-market approaches referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article.

    Article 7

         1. Parties hereby establish the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and                reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an                    adequate adaptation response in the context of the temperature goal referred to in Article 2.

    1. Parties recognize that adaptation is a global challenge faced by all with local, subnational, national, regional and international dimensions, and that it is a key component of and makes a contribution to the long-term global response to climate change to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems, taking into account the urgent and immediate needs of those developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
    2. The adaptation efforts of developing country Parties shall be recognized, in accordance with the modalities to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session.
    3. Parties recognize that the current need for adaptation is significant and that greater levels of mitigation can reduce the need for additional adaptation efforts, and that greater adaptation needs can involve greater adaptation costs.
    4. Parties acknowledge that adaptation action should follow a country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate.
    5. Parties recognize the importance of support for and international cooperation on adaptation efforts and the importance of taking into account the needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
    6. Parties should strengthen their cooperation on enhancing action on adaptation, taking into account the Cancun Adaptation Framework, including with regard to:
      1. Sharing information, good practices, experiences and lessons learned, including, as appropriate, as these relate to science, planning, policies and implementation in relation to adaptation actions;
      2. Strengthening institutional arrangements, including those under the Convention that serve this Agreement, to support the synthesis of relevant information and knowledge, and the provision of technical support and guidance to Parties;
      3. Strengthening scientific knowledge on climate, including research, systematic observation of the climate system and early warning systems, in a manner that informs climate services and supports decision-making;
      4. Assisting developing country Parties in identifying effective adaptation practices, adaptation needs, priorities, support provided and received for adaptation actions and efforts, and challenges and gaps, in a manner consistent with encouraging good practices; and
      5. Improving the effectiveness and durability of adaptation actions.
    7. United Nations specialized organizations and agencies are encouraged to support the efforts of Parties to implement the actions referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article, taking into account the provisions of paragraph 5 of this Article.
    8. Each Party shall, as appropriate, engage in adaptation planning processes and the implementation of actions, including the development or enhancement of relevant plans, policies and/or contributions, which may include:
    1. The implementation of adaptation actions, undertakings and/or efforts;
    2. The process to formulate and implement national adaptation plans;
    3. The assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability, with a view to formulating nationally determined prioritized actions, taking into account vulnerable people, places and ecosystems;
    4. Monitoring and evaluating and learning from adaptation plans, policies, programmes and actions; and
    5. Building the resilience of socioeconomic and ecological systems, including through economic diversification and sustainable management of natural resources.
    1. Each Party should, as appropriate, submit and update periodically an adaptation communication, which may include its priorities, implementation and support needs, plans and actions, without creating any additional burden for developing country Parties.
    2. The adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be, as appropriate, submitted and updated periodically, as a component of or in conjunction with other communications or documents, including a national adaptation plan, a nationally determined contribution as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 2, and/or a national communication.
    3. The adaptation communications referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
    4. Continuous and enhanced international support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of paragraphs 7, 9, 10 and 11 of this Article, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 9, 10 and 11.
    5. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall, inter alia:
      1. Recognize adaptation efforts of developing country Parties;
      2. Enhance the implementation of adaptation action taking into account the adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article;
      3. Review the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation and support provided for adaptation; and
      4. Review the overall progress made in achieving the global goal on adaptation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

    Article 8

    1. Parties recognize the importance of averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the role of sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage.
    2. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts shall be subject to the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement and may be enhanced and strengthened, as determined by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    3. Parties should enhance understanding, action and support, including through the Warsaw International Mechanism, as appropriate, on a cooperative and facilitative basis with respect to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change.
    4. Accordingly, areas of cooperation and facilitation to enhance understanding, action and support may include:
      1. Early warning systems;
      2. Emergency preparedness;
      3. Slow onset events;
      4. Events that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage;
      5. Comprehensive risk assessment and management;
      6. Risk insurance facilities, climate risk pooling and other insurance solutions;
      7. Non-economic losses; and
      8. Resilience of communities, livelihoods and ecosystems.
    5. The Warsaw International Mechanism shall collaborate with existing bodies and expert groups under the Agreement, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Agreement.

    Article 9

    1. Developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention.
    2. Other Parties are encouraged to provide or continue to provide such support voluntarily.
    3. As part of a global effort, developed country Parties should continue to take the lead in mobilizing climate finance from a wide variety of sources, instruments and channels, noting the significant role of public funds, through a variety of actions, including supporting country-driven strategies, and taking into account the needs and priorities of developing country Parties. Such mobilization of climate finance should represent a progression beyond previous efforts.
    4. The provision of scaled-up financial resources should aim to achieve a balance between adaptation and mitigation, taking into account country-driven strategies, and the priorities and needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and have significant capacity constraints, such as the least developed countries and small island developing States, considering the need for public and grant-based resources for adaptation.
    5. Developed country Parties shall biennially communicate indicative quantitative and qualitative information related to paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, as applicable, including, as available, projected levels of public financial resources to be provided to developing country Parties. Other Parties providing resources are encouraged to communicate biennially such information on a voluntary basis.
    6. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account the relevant information provided by developed country Parties and/or Agreement bodies on efforts related to climate finance.
    7. Developed country Parties shall provide transparent and consistent information on support for developing country Parties provided and mobilized through public interventions biennially in accordance with the modalities, procedures and guidelines to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, at its first session, as stipulated in Article 13, paragraph 13. Other Parties are encouraged to do so.
    8. The Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including its operating entities, shall serve as the financial mechanism of this Agreement.
    9. The institutions serving this Agreement, including the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, shall aim to ensure efficient access to financial resources through simplified approval procedures and enhanced readiness support for developing country Parties, in particular for the least developed countries and small island developing States, in the context of their national climate strategies and plans.

    Article 10

    1. Parties share a long-term vision on the importance of fully realizing technology development and transfer in order to improve resilience to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
    2. Parties, noting the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions under this Agreement and recognizing existing technology deployment and dissemination efforts, shall strengthen cooperative action on technology development and transfer.
    3. The Technology Mechanism established under the Convention shall serve this Agreement.
    4. A technology framework is hereby established to provide overarching guidance to the work of the Technology Mechanism in promoting and facilitating enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to support the implementation of this Agreement, in pursuit of the long-term vision referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.
    5. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort shall be, as appropriate, supported, including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to developing country Parties.
    6. Support, including financial support, shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, including for strengthening cooperative action on technology development and transfer at different stages of the technology cycle, with a view to achieving a balance between support for mitigation and adaptation. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account available information on efforts related to support on technology development and transfer for developing country Parties.

    Article 11

    1. Capacity-building under this Agreement should enhance the capacity and ability of developing country Parties, in particular countries with the least capacity, such as the least developed countries, and those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, such as small island developing States, to take effective climate change action, including, inter alia, to implement adaptation and mitigation actions, and should facilitate technology development, dissemination and deployment, access to climate finance, relevant aspects of education, training and public awareness, and the transparent, timely and accurate communication of information.
    2. Capacity-building should be country-driven, based on and responsive to national needs, and foster country ownership of Parties, in particular, for developing country Parties, including at the national, subnational and local levels. Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting and gender-responsive.
    3. All Parties should cooperate to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement. Developed country Parties should enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing country Parties.
    4. All Parties enhancing the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement, including through regional, bilateral and multilateral approaches, shall regularly communicate on these actions or measures on capacity-building. Developing country Parties should regularly communicate progress made on implementing capacity-building plans, policies, actions or measures to implement this Agreement.
    5. Capacity-building activities shall be enhanced through appropriate institutional arrangements to support the implementation of this Agreement, including the appropriate institutional arrangements established under the Convention that serve this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, consider and adopt a decision on the initial institutional arrangements for capacity-building.

    Article 12

    Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement.

    Article 13

    1. In order to build mutual trust and confidence and to promote effective implementation, an enhanced transparency framework for action and support, with built-in flexibility which takes into account Parties’ different capacities and builds upon collective experience is hereby established.
    2. The transparency framework shall provide flexibility in the implementation of the provisions of this Article to those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities. The modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article shall reflect such flexibility.
    3. The transparency framework shall build on and enhance the transparency arrangements under the Convention, recognizing the special circumstances of the least developed countries and small island developing States, and be implemented in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner, respectful of national sovereignty, and avoid placing undue burden on Parties.
    4. The transparency arrangements under the Convention, including national communications, biennial reports and biennial update reports, international assessment and review and international consultation and analysis, shall form part of the experience drawn upon for the development of the modalities, procedures and guidelines under paragraph 13 of this Article.
    5. The purpose of the framework for transparency of action is to provide a clear understanding of climate change action in the light of the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2, including clarity and tracking of progress towards achieving Parties’ individual nationally determined contributions under Article 4, and Parties’ adaptation actions under Article 7, including good practices, priorities, needs and gaps, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
    6. The purpose of the framework for transparency of support is to provide clarity on support provided and received by relevant individual Parties in the context of climate change actions under Articles 4, 7, 9, 10 and 11, and, to the extent possible, to provide a full overview of aggregate financial support provided, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.
    7. Each Party shall regularly provide the following information:
      1. A national inventory report of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases, prepared using good practice methodologies accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement; and
      2. Information necessary to track progress made in implementing and achieving its nationally determined contribution under Article 4.
    8. Each Party should also provide information related to climate change impacts and adaptation under Article 7, as appropriate.
    9. Developed country Parties shall, and other Parties that provide support should, provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support provided to developing country Parties under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
    10. Developing country Parties should provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building support needed and received under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
    11. Information submitted by each Party under paragraphs 7 and 9 of this Article shall undergo a technical expert review, in accordance with decision 1/CP.21. For those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities, the review process shall include assistance in identifying capacity-building needs. In addition, each Party shall participate in a facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress with respect to efforts under Article 9, and its respective implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
    12. The technical expert review under this paragraph shall consist of a consideration of the Party’s support provided, as relevant, and its implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution. The review shall also identify areas of improvement for the Party, and include a review of the consistency of the information with the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article, taking into account the flexibility accorded to the Party under paragraph 2 of this Article. The review shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of developing country Parties.
    13. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall, at its first session, building on experience from the arrangements related to transparency under the Convention, and elaborating on the provisions in this Article, adopt common modalities, procedures and guidelines, as appropriate, for the transparency of action and support.
    14. Support shall be provided to developing countries for the implementation of this Article.
    15. Support shall also be provided for the building of transparency-related capacity of developing country Parties on a continuous basis.

    Article 14

    1. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall periodically take stock of the implementation of this Agreement to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement and its long-term goals (referred to as the “global stocktake”). It shall do so in a comprehensive and facilitative manner, considering mitigation, adaptation and the means of implementation and support, and in the light of equity and the best available science.
    2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall undertake its first global stocktake in 2023 and every five years thereafter unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    3. The outcome of the global stocktake shall inform Parties in updating and enhancing, in a nationally determined manner, their actions and support in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Agreement, as well as in enhancing international cooperation for climate action.

    Article 15

    1. A mechanism to facilitate implementation of and promote compliance with the provisions of this Agreement is hereby established.
    2. The mechanism referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall consist of a committee that shall be expert-based and facilitative in nature and function in a manner that is transparent, non-adversarial and non-punitive. The committee shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.
    3. The committee shall operate under the modalities and procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement at its first session and report annually to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

    Article 16

    1. The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
    3. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, any member of the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.
    4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall keep under regular review the implementation of this Agreement and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote its effective implementation. It shall perform the functions assigned to it by this Agreement and shall:
      1. Establish such subsidiary bodies as deemed necessary for the implementation of this Agreement; and
      2. Exercise such other functions as may be required for the implementation of this Agreement.
    5. The rules of procedure of the Conference of the Parties and the financial procedures applied under the Convention shall be applied mutatis mutandis under this Agreement, except as may be otherwise decided by consensus by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    6. The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be convened by the secretariat in conjunction with the first session of the Conference of the Parties that is scheduled after the date of entry into force of this Agreement. Subsequent ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
    7. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
    8. The United Nations and its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by this Agreement and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement as an observer, may be so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure referred to in paragraph 5 of this Article.

    Article 17

    1. The secretariat established by Article 8 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat of this Agreement.
    2. Article 8, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the functions of the secretariat, and Article 8, paragraph 3, of the Convention, on the arrangements made for the functioning of the secretariat, shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. The secretariat shall, in addition, exercise the functions assigned to it under this Agreement and by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.

    Article 18

    1. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention shall serve, respectively, as the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement. The provisions of the Convention relating to the functioning of these two bodies shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the Convention.
    2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the subsidiary bodies. When the subsidiary 

    bodies serve as the subsidiary bodies of this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.

    3. When the subsidiary bodies established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention exercise their functions with regard to matters concerning this Agreement, any member of the bureaux of those subsidiary bodies representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.

    Article 19

    1. Subsidiary bodies or other institutional arrangements established by or under the Convention, other than those referred to in this Agreement, shall serve this Agreement upon a decision of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall specify the functions to be exercised by such subsidiary bodies or arrangements.
    2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement may provide further guidance to such subsidiary bodies and institutional arrangements.

    Article 20

    1. This Agreement shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the Convention. It shall be open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017. Thereafter, this Agreement shall be open for accession from the day following the date on which it is closed for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
    2. Any regional economic integration organization that becomes a Party to this Agreement without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under this Agreement. In the case of regional economic integration organizations with one or more member States that are Parties to this Agreement, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under this Agreement. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under this Agreement concurrently.
    3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by this Agreement. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.

    Article 21

    1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 per cent of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
    2. Solely for the limited purpose of paragraph 1 of this Article, “total global greenhouse gas emissions” means the most up-to-date amount communicated on or before the date of adoption of this Agreement by the Parties to the Convention.
    1. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Agreement or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 of this Article for entry into force have been fulfilled, this Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
    2. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by its member States.

    Article 22

    The provisions of Article 15 of the Convention on the adoption of amendments to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

    Article 23

    1. The provisions of Article 16 of the Convention on the adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
    2. Annexes to this Agreement shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise expressly provided for, a reference to this Agreement constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall be restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific, technical, procedural or administrative character.

    Article 24

    The provisions of Article 14 of the Convention on settlement of disputes shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

    Article 25

    1. Each Party shall have one vote, except as provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article.
    2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Agreement. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.

    Article 26

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Agreement.

    Article 27

    No reservations may be made to this Agreement.

    Article 28

    1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Agreement has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from this Agreement by giving written notification to the Depositary.
    2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.
    3. Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from this Agreement.

                                                        Article 29

    The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations.

    DONE at Paris this twelfth day of December two thousand and fifteen.

    IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Agreement.

     

    Pages

    Gender Climate Tracker App for iOS & Android

    Download the GCT App for your mobile device for the offline access to our data.

    App Store   Google Play

    Become a Gender Climate Tracker!

    Share your relevant documents on the country profiles and help us improve the platform.

    Join GCT